CALICO 2009, Arizona State University

Language Learning in the Era of Ubiquitous Computing

March 10-14, Tempe, Arizona

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Conference Presentations: Day One
March 12, 2009

10:00 – 10:45

Keynote Address

Contemplating CALL: Clichés and Challenges
Nina Garrett, Director of Center for Language Study,
Yale University, Retired

Ustream recording of Nina’s address
external link

10:00 – 10:45

Technical Issues in Comparing CALL with Classroom Learning in a Blended Curriculum
Carol Chapelle
Susan Matson
Erik Voss
This paper describes a study comparing outcomes for over 200 intensive English learners at three different levels in two instructional conditions: one with and the other without the use of CALL. We report results and discuss methodological issues such as selecting and developing measures and demonstrating equivalence of groups in view of ethical, conceptual, and logical constraints.
Recording of this session

Adaptive Vocabulary Instruction for L2 Learners of German
Trude Heift
Anne Rimrott
Which annotations best support vocabulary learning? Do individual learner differences influence this? Is adaptive instruction necessary? We present results of two studies. Fifty learners studied 60 German words with a program that provided different annotations for different words: (a) transcription + picture, (b) transcription + definition, (c) audio + picture, (d) audio + definition, and (e) everything. In study 1, each learner received each annotation. In study 2, instruction was individualized based on the learner’s performance in study 1. Results show that although annotation (e) everything is best overall, some learners perform better with other annotations, indicating a need for individualized instruction.
Recording of this session
Survey Analysis beyond Frequency, Percentage, and Mean
Fuqiang Zhuo
Surveys are often used to assess the quality of services/instruction and obtain valuable feedback. It is oftentimes the case that a survey is analyzed using basic statistics: count, percentage, and mean. However, those kinds of analyses may waste precious demographic data collected in the survey. Therefore, this presentation will demonstrate survey data analysis beyond frequency, percentage and mean such as logistic and loglinear analyses. Cross-item analyses in the same survey can also yield some interesting findings. Through this presentation, the audience will be made aware of additional statistical analyses which can lead them to more interesting results.
BRIX: A Community of Courseware Developers and Users
Stephen L. Tschudi
David Hiple
BRIX, the University of Hawaii’s CMS for language education applications, is being restructured as an open-source community-based development environment. This presentation welcomes three different user groups into the new BRIX environment, providing information relevant to: (a) educators interested in using BRIX as a platform for developing and delivering language courses, leveraging the features of BRIX that have been designed particularly for language teaching and learning, (b) language program and IT system administrators interested in start-up costs (e.g., required hardware and software) and benefits, and (c) IT programming experts interested in participating in open-source software development, including collaborative teamwork and versioning.

Recording of this session
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Additional Materials

Task Effect on Collaborative Writing when Using Wikis and Chats
Ana Oskoz
Idoia Elola
Despite increasing research on the use of wikis and chats for collaborative writing, little is known about how tasks affect students’ writing processes when using these tools. This study examines the impact of argumentative and expository assignments on collaborative and individual writing when using wikis and chats. Analysis of students’ essay drafts indicates that while there is no significant difference for syntactic complexity, a significant difference for accuracy and fluency exists. Analysis of wiki drafts and chats suggests that both tools allow students working collaboratively to focus on global aspects and promote a proliferation of writing processes that enhance students’ writing.

Recording of this session

Putting CMC into Practice
Senta Goertler
Julie Sykes
The presenters will provide practical tips and concrete examples of how to integrate computer-mediated communication (CMC) activities in the language class. The CMC tools discussed will include asynchronous tools such as discussion forums, email, wikis, or blogs, as well as synchronous tools such as virtual worlds, special chat software, or voice-supported tools. The panelists will provide a short introduction to the tool they will present and discuss the best use of the tool in the language classroom based on pedagogical and theoretical consideration as well as previous research. Example activities will be shared with the audience.
Recording of this session

Don’t Lose Your Work: Learning Standards and Language Projects in the Era of Ubiquitous Computing
Robert Godwin-Jones
The session will discuss recent developments in educational technology standards and approaches to preventing language learning resources from being trapped within proprietary systems. Doing so not only gives more hope for a resource’s longevity, but also makes it more likely it can be shared. Specifically, I will focus on (a) the newly released IMS Common Cartridge 1.0, often considered a successor to the SCORM standard, allowing import/export of content and (b) current open content initiatives which use the OSID standard to allow sharing and discovery of content objects. I will be demonstrating several tools which support these standards.
Recording of this session

11:00 – 11:20

Enhancement of Self-Directed Vocabulary Learning through CALL
Wu Jing
Since ineffective self-directed vocabulary learning is currently shown in the higher education of Mainland China, this paper focuses on whether computer technologies could help to create a better learning environment for vocabulary learners, activating their utilization of appropriate vocabulary-learning strategies effectively and thereby enhancing self-directed vocabulary learning. A courseware prototype called Learning Vocabulary in Domain was developed particularly for this research purpose. Through the questionnaire survey of the undergraduates in UESTC, their fulfillment levels to the vocabulary-learning conditions under the computer-based learning mode and paper-based learning mode were statistically analyzed and compared. It was discovered that the CALL mode was more favorable to vocabulary learners during their self-directed learning. The superiority of CALL was further proven by the quantitative analyses of student vocabulary achievements.

Keyboarding and the Recall of Accent Marks in L2 French
Jessica Sturm
Sturm (2006) found a wide range of variance on recall tests within groups of university students who practiced a list of accent-bearing target words one of three ways: handwriting, typing using preprogrammed function keys, or typing using ALT+ numeric codes. These results contradict those of Gascogine-Lally (2000) and Gascoigne (2006a, 2006b), who found that students who typed a paragraph recalled accents better than those who wrote it by hand. The present study replicated Sturm (2006). Results revealed a significant difference between each of two typing groups and the handwriting group, but no difference between typing groups.
Recording of this session

Teaching with Twitter and Learning to Tweet
Enza Antenos-Conforti
This talk will introduce Twitter, a micro-blogging service, as an educational networking tool, and present a study on Twitter in an intermediate university level Italian course (the full study appears in the 2009 Calico Monograph). For one semester, students belonged to a Twitter community comprised of classmates and native speakers. At the end of the semester, they were asked to evaluate their Twitter experience. Results show that students engaged in Twitter for many reasons (e.g., the community of followers, tweeting in Italian) and they perceived that the experience positively affected their learning of the language and of Italian culture.

Exploring Usability of Multimodal SCMC in Distance Language Learning and Assessment
Yoo-Ree Chung
This study attempts to explore the usability of multimodal synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC) for distance language learning and assessment. This paper will first briefly present quantitative and qualitative findings from an experimental pilot study in which six pairs of nonnative speakers of English completed three different types of interactional tasks using three different language modes in multimodal SCMC. Discussions on the usability of multimodal SCMC in distance learning will then follow, accompanied by pedagogical suggestions and practical concerns in regard to the application of multimodal SCMC in distance learning and assessment.

Visualizing the Composing Processes of L2 Writers with Screen Capture Software
Kwanghyun Park
Sung Woo Kim
The study explores EFL writers’ composing process using video screen capture software. Three graduate students’ computer screens were captured while they were writing, and their reflective accounts were collected in the follow-up stimulated recall sessions. Data analysis focused on self-correction in order to identify the challenges that they encountered and their strategies to overcome these challenges. These findings may not have been visible if only printed papers were considered. The video screen capture technique, when corroborated by the recall sessions, offers rich information about the actual writing process. Issues regarding planning and implementing video-capture sessions are discussed.

Recording of this session

Corpus-Enhanced Language Learning: From Corpus Data to Communication and Interaction
Petra Hoffstaedter
The exploitation of corpora for language learning purposes is faced with a serious challenge: corpora, whether written or spoken, are texts/transcripts stripped bare of contextual information and situations of use. Communicative embedding, however, is needed for engaging learners in meaningful learning experiences that lead up to the development of communicative competences. In our talk, we will present corpora based on video-recorded spoken interview data; describe tools and procedures for their pedagogic annotation, enrichment, and search; and demonstrate how Moodle is used to contextualize corpus data in communicative and explorative blended learning activities in secondary schools in Germany.

Recording of this session

Audio Versus Video in Improving Pronunciation Listening Activities
Shannon McCrocklin
At the University of Illinois the pronunciation course, ESL 110/510, currently uses streaming audio to present listening exercises. The presenter will discuss her research study, examining the effects of incorporating video (in addition to audio) in listening exercises. She will discuss study results, examining the accuracy of produced, targeted sounds throughout the span of the study, as well as student reactions to the use of this new media.
Recording of this session

11:30 – 11:50

Learning Spanish Pragmatics via a Web-Based Tutorial
Victoria Russell
This session presents a web-based tutorial (WBT) that was designed to teach pragmatics to Spanish language learners. Foreign language textbooks do not typically include instruction on how the language is used by native speakers to perform specific functions such as apologizing, requesting, complementing, and complaining. This WBT uses video clips, animation, and role plays to raise student awareness about the linguistic and sociocultural differences between English and Spanish with respect to the speech acts of requesting and complaining. The WBT also helps Spanish language learners to produce speech that more closely approximates nativespeaker norms.

Recording of this session
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Additional Materials

When iPods Meet RSS Feed. Using iPod for RSS Feed Platforms in EFL Reading and Writing Classes
Hyejin Yang
iPods (iPod Touch or iPhone) have spread all around the world, and they bring people a new type of user-friendly technology. Using the iPod has numerous potential advantages for language teaching and learning because learners are able to use various internet resources with ease by accessing the internet. Of various resources, furthermore, an RSS feed can be played as a booster which allows learners to be exposed to the selected information on a regular basis. This presentation will explain how to integrate iPods with RSS feeds for EFL reading and writing classes. It will also demonstrate a number of possible tasks and introduce useful websites to implement the tasks for EFL reading and writing classes.

Recording of this session Slides from this presentation
Handout from this presentation

Background Factors of ESL Students and Preference for Computer- or Paper-Based Writing Medium
Shengrong Cai
ESL teachers, facing a diverse population of students, should be aware that using computers in teaching may produce different effects on students from different backgrounds. Without this awareness, the gaps among students may be unwittingly widened, thus violating the principle of fairness in education. This study focused on the relationship between seven background factors of universitylevel ESL students and their writing medium preference for three writing tasks. Results indicated that different background factors played different roles in predicting the preference for writing medium, depending on the writing task. Possible explanations are given, and general themes from the results are discussed.

Recording of this session
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Strategy Training in Learners’ Self-Confidence and Feedback
Joan Jamieson
Mansoor Al-Surmi
Certain strategy training can help students develop self-awareness and self-esteem and thereby increase their chances of success in autonomous use of CALL after formal instruction is finished (Graham, 2007; Hubbard, 2004; Kolaitis et al., 2006; Tarone & Yule, 1989). This study combined strategy training in self-confidence with feedback learners receive in CALL. Before students chose an answer, they were asked to rate their confidence. They were asked to answer each question and compare their self-confidence scores with the correct answer. Results traced confidence patterns over time and described overall reactions. Suggestions for the effectiveness

of this training will be given.
Practice Makes Perfect? Structuring Practice Opportunities for Learning in an ESL Grammar Tutor
Ruth Wylie
Ken Koedinger
Teruko Mitamura
Why is the English article system (a, an, the, null) so hard to learn? Using data from two studies, we address these challenges and discuss how to design systems that facilitate learning. Using the Article Tutor, an intelligent tutoring system that provides immediate feedback and on-demand hints, we compare two methods for selecting instructional materials. The first method is based on article type (e.g. “the”) while the second is rule-based (e.g. “noun was already mentioned”). Results show significant learning gains with the rulebased approach, suggesting that for articles understanding rules and processes are more important than the article choice itself.
Recording of this session

2:00 – 3:30
Extended Panel Presentation

Successes and Challenges of ICALL for Learning, Teaching and Research
Mathias Schulze
Trude Heift
Detmar Meurers
Xiaofei Lu
This panel discussion focuses on the successes and challenges of ICALL techniques for foreign language learning and reports on current developments in the analysis of learner language. Mathias Schulze will focus on SLA theories that have influenced current thinking in ICALL. Trude Heift will provide an example of an ICALL application by illustrating the benefits of error-specific feedback and individualized instruction. Detmar Meurers will discuss the automatic analysis of meaning. Xiaofei Lu will provide an overview of how teachers and researchers can employ NLP tools to automatically measure L2 lexical and syntactic development. The session concludes with time for discussion.

2:00 – 2:45

Using Praat to Test Models of L1-L2 Relations in Bilingual Speech
Timothy J. Riney
This presentation demonstrates how acoustic software, in this case Praat (free software for acoustic analysis by Paul Boersma of the University of Amsterdam), can be used to test certain theories and hypotheses about the speech of second language learners and bilinguals. The example theory, used to contextualize this demonstration, hypothesizes an L1-L2 interaction effect that involves not only an L1 effect on L2 but also an L2 effect on L1. The experiment shows how Praat can be used to test this claim, based on Japanese-English and English-Japanese bilinguals’ productions of /p, t, k/ in both languages.

The Second Generation: Online Collaboration and Social Networking in CALL
Gillian Lord
Lara Lomicka Anderson
The advent of Web 2.0 tools has drastically altered our understanding of CALL and its potential in language classrooms. The 2009 CALICO monograph addresses these tools and their uses in teaching and learning languages, presenting theoretical and empirical studies of their integration and use. This session highlights the contributions to the volume (wikis, blogs, okrut, twitter, chatbots, second life, Facebook, RSS, YouTube, and podcasting), discussing Web 2.0 tools, including findings and implications of the studies. This presentation also offers ideas for continued research and teaching.

Recording of this session Slides of this presentation

Integrating Web-Based Concordancing in EFL Primary School Students’ Learning of Verb Phrases
Hsien-Chin Liou
Li-Tang Yu
This study used a time-series design to investigate the effectiveness of incorporating concordancing in EFL primary school students’ learning of verb phrases. Eight fifth graders were assessed with two pretests to identify their unknown verb phrases. They then received a 6-week treatment on 18 verb phrases aiming for them to produce the phrases in a sentence context through the help of an English-Chinese bilingual concordancer. After the treatment, two posttests and one delayed posttest on the verb phrases were given. Findings of the study are expected to address effectiveness questions on using concordancing in EFL primary school contexts.

Recording of this session Slides of this presentation

Vendor Presentation
21st Century Online-Learning Environment with Wimba
Gina Connors
Instructors consider personal interaction to be the most valuable element of the teaching and learning process. This presentation will show how Wimba’s Collaboration Suite supports instructors and students in the 21st century online-learning environment. We will demonstrate how Wimba enables faculty and students to build relationships by combining state-of-the-art interactive technologies such as voice, video, application sharing, polling, and whiteboarding with traditional best practices of instruction. Instructors can personalize their online courses by holding live, online classes, office hours, guest lectures, webcasts, and meetings. Come experience 21st Century online learning with Wimba.
Recording of this session

Learner Autonomy Revisited: Towards the Development of New Competencies for Autonomous Online Language Learning
Françoise Blin
Drawing on activity theory and more particularly on Kaptelinin and Nardi’s (2006) definition of “functional organs,” which “combine natural human capabilities with artefacts to attain goals that could not be attained otherwise” (p. 64), this paper revisits our understanding of learner autonomy and its relationship to CALL. It explores a range of competencies associated with the creation of functional organs that language learners may need to develop in order to become autonomous online language learners. It then proposes and discusses a pedagogical model to assist in the design and implementation of online tasks promoting the development and exercise of learner autonomy.

Recording of this session

Academic Corpora to Enhance the Revision Process: The Google Alternative
Randall Sadler
Ulugbek Nurmukhamedov
This presentation will discuss the results of a research project that examined the feasibility and effectiveness of using Google Wildcard Searches (GWS) to enhance essay revision. An example of GWS like These * results, might result in possible hits like These important results, or These insignificant results. The study involved one group utilizing GWS during their revision process while the control group used more traditional online dictionaries and thesauri. The results suggest that GWS can enhance vocabulary revision, resulting in increased fluency and native-like selection in students’ written product in comparison to more traditional revision methods.

Recording of this session Additional materials

3:00 – 3:45

Developing Technology-Mediated Language Awareness through Bridging Activities
Steven Thorne
Jonathon Reinhardt
Technology-mediated language awareness refers to the development of language awareness through technological means, as well as awareness of the influences of technology on language use. For the advanced foreign language classroom, we propose developing this awareness through bridging activities (Thorne & Reinhardt, 2008), which are classroom activities that teach language awareness through the analysis of texts students have collected from their everyday, out-of-school internet practices. In this presentation, we outline the approach, situate it in broader discussion of language pedagogy and technology, and offer sample activities.

Recording of this session Slides of this presentation
Additional materials

Usability Tests: When Learners Have a Say on CALL Interface Design
Marie-Jose Hamel
Catherine Caws
In web ergonomics (Schneiderman, 1998), the term usability (Baccino et al., 2005) refers to how useable and how useful a web interface is to its target users in task specific situations. Ergonomic criteria (Scapin & Bastien, 1997) such as effectiveness, efficiency, and user satisfaction, which serve to measure the usability of web interfaces can be applied in the context of CALL. We will describe some ergonomic analyses conducted with learners that can be carried out to measure the usability of CALL interfaces. We will provide experimental results of usability tests done with learners using two CALL tools currently under development.

Diversity in CALL Learner Training
Phil Hubbard
Kenneth Romeo
This presentation reviews two dimensions of diversity in CALL learner training. The first, diversity in the learner training process, is informed by a framework that distinguishes technical, strategic, and pedagogical training as well as the timing and the style of the training. The second dimension, diversity in the learners themselves, is first discussed in general terms with respect to relevant literature. Examples are then given of group and individual diversity using data from student reports and recordings of tutorial sessions in an advanced ESL listening course. Suggestions for incorporating learner training while accommodating learner diversity are offered.

Recording of this session Slides of this presentation

Vendor Presentation
Meeting Assessment, Research, Data Collection, and Compliance Needs:
The OWL Testing Software Solution
Chris Dalessandri
Thekla Fall
OWL Testing Software provides the tools instructors need to create, administer, and score or rate tests in any language (as well as collect data for research and compliance requirements) with ease! See how the OWL wizard makes it easy to assign tasks, do blind ratings, and create data reports, whether students and raters are here or abroad. OWL can greatly expand your research and testing capacity as an integrated solution with Blackboard, Moodle, ANGEL, and most other course management systems. All participants will receive a packet of speaking proficiency test-prep materials. One participant will win a free, 3-month OWL trial.

Recording of this session Slides of this presentation

Interaction and Accuracy in Synchronous Computer-Mediated Classroom Discussion
Lisa Jurkowitz
Synchronous computer-mediated classroom discussion (CMCD) has been touted as highly interactive and beneficial for second language acquisition on many levels. However, studies have noted that learner output is often inaccurate. In order to heighten students’ attention to features of the target language, SLA research suggests integrating a focus on form within meaning-based tasks. In this study, various activities intended to make form salient were added to students’ weekly electronic discussions. Findings point to CMCD as a valuable means of increasing authentic classroom communication and indicate that attention to form need not be sacrificed in the process.

Recording of this session

Teacher Education via Technology: Do Teacher Beliefs Change?
Rong Yuan
Sandra Wagner
This presentation describes research conducted to assess the potential changes in teacher beliefs after a semester-long hybrid language teacher training course. The same teacher belief survey adapted from Lightbown and Spada (2006) was administered respectively at the beginning and at the end of the course; belief changes as indicated in the surveys are discussed. Additionally, the presentation provides an overview of the online interface of the course, its design principle, and course delivery and its impact on the changes in teacher beliefs. Finally, future course modifications based on survey outcomes and for other improvements are also discussed.

3:45pm – 5:15pm
Extended Panel Presentation

Tech-NO-logy: When It’s Not as Ubiquitous as We Think, What Do We Do?
Hyun Bin Kang
Junhee Kim
Donald Ugarte
Zekariya Ozsevik
Nagham Awadallah
Michael Foster
Currently technology has become an important aspect of the language teaching classroom. Today teachers and students rely much more on the internet and portable devices such as the iPod in the classroom. However, even with today’s technology, some countries lack the technical support needed for both teachers and students. Through our presentation, we would like to discuss the different limitations in different countries. The countries that will be discussed are as follow: Uzbekistan, Turkey, South Korea, Nicaragua, Madagascar, and Palestine. Also we would like to discuss how we could overcome these limitations in the language classroom.
Recording of this session

4:00 – 4:45

Automating and Evaluating Measures of L2 Lexical Complexity
Xiaofei Lu
First a computational system is described for automatic measurement of L2 lexical complexity using a wide range of measures proposed in the second language acquisition literature, including measures of lexical diversity/variation, lexical sophistication, lexical density, and lexical relationships. I then report results of a corpusbased evaluation of these measures as indices of L2 language development using data from the Spoken and Written English Corpus of Chinese Learners. Finally, I discuss the usefulness of the computational system and the implications of our research findings for second language teaching, assessment, and research.

Recording of this session Slides of this presentation

Computer-Based Assessment of Basic Language Proficiency and Regional Expertise in the Less Commonly Taught Languages
Johannes Vazulik
Jeff Watson
Sherri Bellinger
With increased emphasis on foreign languages, cultures, and regional knowledge, West Point’s Center for Languages, Cultures and Regional Studies (CLCRS) is researching innovative ways of integrating these concepts across the curriculum. This presentation will report on development of computer-based assessment tools for basic language proficiency and regional knowledge. Tests on Brazilian Portuguese and Brazil are ready, with Arabic, Chinese, Russian, Persian, and associated regions to follow. Additionally, we will report on the CLCRS’s Language and Culture Teaching Database (LCTD), a web-based teaching and learning tool that allows teachers to share expertise and further integrate language and culture into their courses.

Acquiring L2 Cultural Knowledge and Changing Attitudes: Blogs Versus Email Exchanges
Joshua Thoms
Fanny Roncal-Ramírez
This research project compares the use of email versus blogs in a cultural exchange project between intermediate learners of Spanish at The University of Iowa and learners of English at The University of Barcelona in Spain. Using Byram’s (1997) intercultural competence model as the theoretical framework, the study measures students’ attitude changes toward the second culture (C2) via pre- and postquestionnaire data and assesses the effectiveness of using email and blogs to enhance knowledge about the C2. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of the data will be shared along with pedagogical recommendations for using both applications in cultural learning projects.
Recording of this session

Boot Camp and Beyond: Technology Training for Language Teachers
Felix Kronenberg
The latest technology and the best language center are not worth the investment without proper language educator training. The Foreign Language Resource Center at Pomona deals with this issue by offering an intensive workshop for beginners, called Language Technology Boot Camp, to faculty and language assistants. This is followed up by a series of workshops and individual training. This session shows how to best implement and develop a sustainable language educator training program. Critical topics that will be dealt with include educator anxiety and resentment of technology, faculty time concerns, as well as technological, logistical, and support issues.

Recording of this session Additional Materials

Factoring Technology into Institutional Effectiveness?
Claire Bartlett
Wendy Freeman
As business models of productivity are applied to educational institutions, how are faculty and administrators quantifying success in teaching with technology? Accountability helps us attract and retain funding, increase visibility, and improve student learning. We will present and discuss data used in reports to the administration. Examples presented will range from faculty evaluation criteria, student online surveys, internal and external assessment protocols, student wikis, blogs and e-portfolios, course management systems, server statistics, grants, and budgets. We will also discuss how we plan to continue using these data to improve educational program outcomes for our Center for the Study of Languages at Rice University.

Recording of this session Slides of this presentation

The University of Arizona Critical Languages Series for Kazakh
Scott Brill
Akmaral Mukan
We discuss the pedagogical and technological principles underlying the widely available University of Arizona Kazakh Critical Languages Series (CLS), implications for classroom use, and future prospects for application in Web-based learning. CLS courseware is designed for use in three settings: the traditional classroom, a modified selfinstructional setting, and in completely self-instructional, noncredit contexts. These Kazakh materials are available for three levels (Beginning, Intermediate, and Advanced) and were developed in cooperation with the National Association of Self-Instructional Language Programs (NASILP). Our website at cls contains detailed descriptions of our materials which are available through the University of Arizona Press.
Recording of this session

Note: the company that provided Speakerbox recordings is no longer in operation.

Conference Presentations: Day Two

March 13, 2009

8:00 – 8:45

Learning Blends and 3D Virtual Worlds to Promote Oral Skills Development in Modern Language Education
Ton Koenraad
The Dutch project ViTAAL presented here aims to explore activity designs for voice-enabled 3D virtual worlds to enhance the attractiveness of language learning and support task-based methodologies with a focus on oral skills. To this end schools and teacher education organizations collaborate to develop and test specific activity formats. In this paper we document the experiences with formats such as cross-media, interactive narrative LanguageQuests, and the provision of online events and fun activities such as quizzes, fortune-telling and karaoke competitions to promote informal learning. We highlight the organizational issues in this learning blend, offering learning practices for all partners involved.

Technology-Enhanced Blended Learning in an ESL class
Maja Grgurovic
Blended learning, a combination of face-to-face and online instruction, has been primarily investigated in comparison studies. In order to further advance the research in this area, some authors (Neumeier, 2005) point out a need to situate studies within theoretical frameworks and to move beyond quantitative comparison methods (Chapelle, 2003). In view of these needs, the present study investigates a technology-enhanced blended learning model in an ESL class, using three theoretical frameworks and employing both qualitative and quantitative research methods. The findings about CALL innovation, face-to-face and online mode integration, and learner-computer interaction can inform the introduction of CALL into a language program.

CALL Technology Education for L2 Teachers: Does It Work?
Kwang Hee Hong
The present study investigates the influence of L2 teachers’ prior technology education experience on their use of computer technology in the classroom. The data were collected from L2 teachers (including ESL teachers) in public secondary schools (grades 7-12) across a county in a Midwestern state (a total of 454 teachers across 91 schools in 16 school districts). The findings of the study show that L2 teachers with more technology education experience were more likely to use computer technology in the classroom.

Performing Caperucita: Video Production in the Spanish classroom
Victoria Maillo
This presentation describes the use of video production in the Spanish intermediate classroom to promote active learning and language acquisition through the use of technology. Student presenters will provide their own perspectives of the project and together with the instructor will discuss the pedagogical benefits as well as lessons learned from this experience.
Recording of this session

Comparison of Synchronous and Asynchronous Computer-Mediated Peer Reviews by EFL College Students
Chia-Wei Pai
The study compares asynchronous versus synchronous computermediated peer review (CMPR) activities of 18 EFL English-major freshmen using Google Docs and Google Talk in two writing cycles. Copies of asynchronous comments, transcripts of synchronous talk, and different drafts were analyzed and compared regarding function and content of peer negotiations, feedback adoption rates, and text revisions. Student responses were also investigated to reveal their perspectives on experiencing CMPR. Findings of the present study can contribute to a better understanding of how media types affect the nature of peer review activities.
Recording of this session

Blending Language Instruction
Senta Goertler
Blended or hybrid instruction offers many advantages such as flexibility in time and space and a potential for more individualized instruction. On the other hand it also bares many dangers such as inadequate preparation and support for teachers and students. Furthermore, results on language learning in blended versus traditional instructional format have been mixed. This study compared student linguistic and computer literacy development in four traditional sections with two blended sections of third-semester German. In addition to the research results, the process of blending the curriculum, the blended curriculum, and sample activities will be shared with the audience.
Recording of this session

Towards Automated Support for Language Learning while Composing First-Hand Narratives of Conflict and Conflict Prevention
Gregory Aist
Salman Ahmad
Pierre Bucher
Randy Compton
Matthew Greene
Tylar Hoag
Alan Hoag
Eric Keylor
Patrick Krecker
Kevin Leeds
Paul Mickevicius
Sean Philipp
Peter Woods
An emerging area in applied linguistics is language learning in authentic contexts: embedded in real-life situations at work, play, and so forth. We discuss challenges, opportunities, and prototype applications for natural language processing to support language learning while people relate first-hand narratives. For example, toogeneral words (car) can trigger more specific suggestions (jeep). We focus on the theme of Stories of War and Peace, conflict and conflict prevention, including cross-cultural communication. Not only are such experiences transformative and vivid, they often involve people of varied language backgrounds working together, creating naturally occurring demand for language learning in authentic communicative contexts

9:00 – 10:30
Extended Panel Presentation

Second Language Acquisition Theories, Technologies, and Language Learning
J. Scott Payne
Bryan Smith
Steven Thorne
Leo van Lier
In this panel, four researchers working within different second language acquisition (SLA) frameworks will relate various SLA theories to technology-related language learning. Presentations will be followed by open discussion with the audience. Panel participants are Scott Payne (Psycholinguistics of SLA), Bryan Smith (Interaction Approach to SLA), Steven Thorne (Sociocultural Approaches to SLA), and Leo van Lier (Ecological Approaches to SLA). Each presenter will provide a concise description of an SLA approach, important research and pedagogical findings produced from this framework, and address how each SLA theory might assist research, pedagogical practice, and technology design.
Recording of this session

9:00 – 9:45

A Window to Study Abroad Immersion: 24/7 HD Video Streaming as a New Frontier in Language Development
Lance Askildson
Although video teleconferencing services have been available for over a decade, the technology for high-definition audio-video connections over existing internet infrastructure has only recently emerged. A number of exciting opportunities for language learning have accompanied these technological developments. The present case study examines the implementation of such a high-definition video link for language learning in the form of a live ‘internet window’ between the University of Notre Dame and its study abroad affiliate in France. Utilizing student feedback and observational data, this presentation will critically examine the technology and the pedagogy underlying the ‘window’ initiative while also identifying areas for future investigation and improvement.
Recording of this session

Modifying Digital Role-Playing Games as a Tool to Enhance Foreign Language Teaching
Regina Kaplan-Rakowski
This presentation discusses the potential of using digital role-playing game modules for the teaching of foreign languages. I focus on the distinctive characteristics of these games that are uniquely suited to the challenges of foreign language instruction. I then provide an example of a game module that illustrates these principles and presents concrete examples of foreign language teaching techniques that are customized to take advantage of the interactive roleplaying environment.
Recording of this session

CALL, the Digital Divide, and Rural Development in the Age of Ubiquitous Computing
Ivon Katz
Many would contend that CALL has little or no place in language classrooms in the rural areas of the developing world and that the money needed for CALL would be better used for other educational and development projects. Do economics actually force us to accept that CALL is only appropriate for one side of the digital divide? This presentation will examine examples of successful, unsuccessful, and promising CALL/technological initiatives in the developing world and offer guidelines on how existing infrastructure and/or lowcost initiatives can successfully promote both language learning and social development.

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Reference list

Impact of Authentic Materials and Language Learning Technology on Student Success
Ulysses Navarrete
Yes, they do exist together! Learn how to incorporate language learning technology and authentic materials into your classroom and class plans. Partnering these two elements together provide students with culturally accurate education within a multimedia environment. Discuss what authentic materials bring to the classroom, lesson, and learning process, as well as how content that is created with materials authentic to target language directly impacts student success. Learn how cultural texts, current events, videos, real-world situations and scenarios, and native speakers deliver creditability and relevance to the learning process. Technology helps the learning process, making learning interactive, engaging, self-paced, and fun!
Recording of this session

Delivering Quality Interactive Language Instruction via Synchronous Teleconferencing
Bonnie L. Youngs
Marc Siskin
This presentation explains the teaching of an interactive, first-year language course via live video and audio teleconferencing by highlighting (a) challenges found during the set up of the course, (b) choices of the equipment used, (c) adaptations and alternatives in pedagogical approaches, (d) problems in achieving the appropriate physical environment to facilitate interaction between the instructor and the students and among/between the students (the reception classroom in Qatar and the delivery classroom in Pittsburgh), (e) difficulties with equipment and tech solutions implemented, and (f) the everyday efforts required to deliver a high-quality course in which students could learn and be motivated.

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This Time It’s Personal: The Power of Desktop Videoconferencing
Judi Franz
Akemi Morioka
The opportunity for language students to be exposed to the ‘real’ culture and authentic language use is truly beneficial. Creating such an environment in a location where the target language is not spoken outside the classroom is challenging. The Japanese language program at the University of California, Irvine has conducted videoconferences with students in Japan over the past 5 years. Our presentation will discuss the results of participating in this videoconference, including our experiences with the technology (e.g., Skype, etc), forms of conversation (one-to-one vs. group), discussion topics, the different language levels of participants, student reactions, feedback, and influences on motivation.
Recording of this session

10:00 – 10:20

Explicit Feedback Versus Implicit Feedback in CALL
Rong Liu
Forty intermediate ESL learners participated in a pretest-treatmentposttest experiment. Two treatment groups received computerized input-based instruction. One group received implicit feedback, that is, yes/no feedback. The other group received explicit feedback, that is, explicit grammar explanation and why the answer was wrong. Results showed that there was no significant difference between implicit and explicit feedback groups. Both groups improved in the interpretation task. Input-based instruction was effective in improving participants’ ability to interpret and produce the target forms. This showed that when the role of feedback is examined, it is important to consider the types of instruction and types of measurement.
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Digital Game-Based Learning as a Model for Language Courseware Design
Matthew Buscemi
This presentation focuses on the design and development of online English reading courseware by the presenter. Leveraging existing research in the area of digital game-based learning, the developer has provided this courseware with unique advantages in motivating student progress through tasks in the courseware and monitoring student learning. The presenter argues that a design framework emphasizing the importance of both second language acquisition theory and game-based learning will increase learner motivation and engagement with the English language reading modules. The presentation will summarize preliminary results of a study that utilized data gathered from the courseware.

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Lexical Processing: Methodology of Intervals
Ulf Schuetze
The presentation reports on the methodology of a large-scale study carried out on lexical processing in second language acquisition trying to answer the question what intervals are most efficient for a lexical item to move from passive to active status (Laufer, 2007). A virtual vocabulary program (ViVo) that was developed at the University of Victoria is currently tested with 120 students of beginning German courses using two modes: a uniform spaced and a graduated spaced interval. The items learned and tested are based on the textbook used and presented with images, sound files, and sample sentences. Tests were carried out at the end of each 10-day learning period.
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Lexico-Grammatical Complexity in a TB-SCMC Task
Karina Collentine
Robinson (2001) argues that task-based language teaching (TBLT) provides design principles that establish conditions that encourage learners to produce discourse containing lexico-grammatical complexity. Yet, an important question to address in TBLT research is how to operationalize complexity since many researchers use a small set of metrics (e.g., t-units). The present study, thus, employs corpus-linguistics analytical tools to explore whether researchers should compare learner complexity in task-based synchronous computer-mediated communication (TB-SCMC) to native speaker ‘models’ of complexity or to learner models of complexity (e.g., to what they might produce in an expository composition or narrative).

Redesigning Courses for the Postcommunicative, Digital Age: Who Is Ready
Mark Knowles
Edwige Simon
This presentation explores the applicability of a language center/language faculty partnership based on a current initiative at University of Colorado, Boulder, between upper level literature teachers and ourselves. We will report on research of said faculties’ readiness in terms of the perceptions, anxieties, and motivations for undertaking course redesign and will present our strategies for instilling cooperation. We will provide a defense for what may be a controversial choice of this particular population. Discussion will also center on recent course redesign initiatives that leverage the potential of technology (Bransford et al., 2004), and that are founded upon the principles of anchored instruction.
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Virtual Learning in 3-D Virtual Business Environments: The Construction of Interactive Frames to Complete Assigned Tasks in an Online Classroom
Stella Hadjistassou
The aim of this study was to expand the current instructional practices from the conventional Blackboard system to incorporate specific learning tasks in virtual environments and to address the following questions: (a) How can students implement such virtual forums to expand the collaborative frames and to examine business practices? (b) In what ways can students utilize such virtual forums to complete their assigned tasks? and (c) What are some of the major challenges that students encountered in this process?

Recording of this session

10:30 – 10:50

NetRecorder: A Simple Internet-Enabled Recording Utility
Devin Asay
The NetRecorder was developed to meet a persistent need by language instructors at Brigham Young University. Teachers needed a way for students to quickly and reliably record their oral language skills and a quick and easy way to review those recordings. The NetRecorder is a custom application developed using Runtime Revolution. Students use the NetRecorder utility’s simple start-and-stop recording interface to record. It then automatically saves their recordings to a networked database. A companion utility for teachers allows them to easily create recording assignments or to call up the recordings for review after the students have recorded them.
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L2 Socialization in Synchronous Computer-Mediated Communication (SCMC): Korean Task-Based Dyads
Hyewon Lee
This paper investigates how Korean native speaker (NS)-nonnative speaker (NNS) chats and Korean heritage speaker (KHS)-NNS chats in synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC) can differently enhance language socialization (LS). Preliminary findings show that KHSs, like NSs, can provide NNSs with linguistic knowledge and sociocultural resources for language practices and benefit in developing a positive attitude towards their own linguistic and cultural knowledge of Korean. Also, the process of LS seems to be bidirectional in that NNSs also teach or express their communicative needs to NSs or KHSs. Through this type of social interaction in SCMC, which includes gradually more active participation by NNSs, what was firstly a practice used by NSs or KHSs becomes a part of NNSs’ linguistic and cognitive range.
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A Comparative Analysis of Instructional Discourse on English as a Second Language Teaching Websites
Haesong Lee
This study examined the differences in the nature of instructional discourse between two contrastive types of English as a second language (ESL) teaching websites: drill-and-practice sites and discussion-oriented sites. Prompts for drill/practice and discussion activities were selected from five online learning materials on the MERLOT (Multimedia Educational Resource form Learning and Online Teaching) site and subsequently subjected to a frequency and a concordance analysis using the Simple Concordance Program. Results indicate striking differences in the nature of instructional discourse in the two contexts. Discussions are presented in terms of behaviorist theory of learning and scaffolding strategies.

The Use of Blogs and Wikis in Learning the Preterite and Imperfect Aspects in Spanish
Daniel Castaneda
This study investigates the influence of blog and wiki technologies on student performance when learning the preterite and imperfect aspects in Spanish. Preliminary results show that there were no significant differences in language gains and satisfaction level. However, from the technological perspective, the results suggest that the wiki is as effective as the blog in students’ learning of the preterite and imperfect aspects. Current research on this topic takes into account a different population, a longer treatment time, and the incorporation of a qualitative component.
Recording of this session

Technological Activities in Language Learning: From the Mouths of Students
Nandini Sarma
Alysse Weinberg
Martine Peters
This paper examines the perception students have of technological activities used in language classes at the university level. Students from 5 Canadian universities (N = 71) described and discussed the technological activities they had encountered in their French classes. Twenty-two activities were identified and described using 34 constructs or characteristics that emerged during the discussion among participants. In general, students have clear views on the technological activities used in their language courses and find that they have a positive effect on their learning. Our conclusions pave the way for further research and offer recommendations for language teachers.
Recording of this session

1:30 – 2:15

Beyond Blackboard: Using Wikis in L2 Composition and Collaboration
Robert L. Davis
Course management systems like Blackboard have become a staple in university programs. However, these systems have limitations: access is restricted to faculty and enrolled students, and CMSs do little to facilitate students’ creativity or motivation in generating content. This session will demonstrate the use of a free wiki service as a tool to enhance L2 process writing in Spanish in a range of contexts: a small-format advanced-level content class, a first-year culture class, and a lower division program at two sites (distance learning). Suggestions for assessing student work and generalizing the model to other contexts will be provided.
Recording of this session

Using Second Life in World Language Teacher Education Contexts
Mehmet Sahin
Julio C. Rodriguez
Karina Silva
This presentation will provide an introduction to one of the most popular and sophisticated virtual worlds, Second Life (SL), and will explore its potential in the intricate context of world language teacher education and development. We will use technology, pedagogical, and content knowledge (TPACK) as a platform for both the exploration and discussion of the main features of the environment as well as the organization of the discussion of preliminary findings from a survey administered to world language educators who actively use SL. Findings are used to propose core guidelines for the optimal application of SL to professional development opportunities.
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Priming the Language Pump with Sounds, Images, and Text
Michael Bush
This presentation will report on research into the effectiveness of the ideas of I. A. Richards, the Cambridge and Harvard scholar and researcher who developed during the middle of the 20th century a series of language-learning books known as the Language through Pictures series. Although Richards foresaw the revolutionary impact that computer technology could have on learning, this potential remains largely unfulfilled. This presentation will report on studies that (a) target Modern Standard Arabic using today’s technologies that were unavailable during Richards’ and (b) update his learning strategies with techniques drawn from current language-learning theory.

Recording of this session

Learner Interactions With, and Affective Views of, Gloss Presentations in CALL Reading
Elizabeth Lavolette
Sixty-nine adult ESL students read two Web-based texts that used different gloss presentations: one required them to click on glossed words, and the other required them to hover the mouse over the glossed words. The participants were split almost evenly among liking the click, hover, and both presentations. A strong effect was found for the length of time that the participants had lived in English- speaking countries; those who had lived in these countries the shortest time (approximately 6 months) preferred the click presentation, while those who had lived there the longest time (5 years+) preferred the hover presentation. Pedagogical implications are discussed.

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CALL in Second Life: Instructional Strategies and Activities for Language Learning in a Virtual World
Douglas W. Canfield
Regina Kaplan-Rakowski
Randall Sadler
Lisa Volle
Thom Thibeault
The presenters will demonstrate innovative CALL strategies and activities allowed through the technology of the virtual world, Second Life, with emphasis on the pedagogical aspects of each. Three-dimensional learning objects constructed with Second Life’s building features will also be presented. Virtual worlds provide immediate access to native speakers throughout the real world, have cultural themes and social settings, and allow capture of conversations for later analysis. Attendees who would like to participate should bring their WiFi-capable laptops with the Second Life application installed and have an account already created ( Mac and PC.

Automated Writing Evaluation and Feedback: Language-Learning Potential
Elena Cotos
Research on the formative value of automated writing evaluation and intelligent feedback is still scarce and lacking foresight. This paper presents a mixed-methods study investigating the effectiveness of a new natural language processing-based program, called IADE (Intelligent Academic Discourse Evaluator). The study focuses on IADE’s discourse-related intelligent formative feedback, seeking evidence of language-learning potential. Multiple sources of data yield positive results with respect to learners’ enhanced focus on discourse form, noticing of negative evidence in their output, as well as improvement in the quality of their production.

Recording of this session

2:30 – 3:15

Investigating Learner Variability: The Impact of Task Type on Language Learner Errors and Mistakes
Sylvie Thouesny
Language learners do not only write incorrect forms, but also correct instances of the target language, which both provide useful information on their strengths and weaknesses. Variation in learners’ performance may be due to factors such as task type. However, information drawn from direct observations in learners’ written texts only enables inferences about learners’ performance. Following an overview of the instruments used to discriminate errors from mistakes, this paper argues that identifying both occurrences will provide a better insight into learners’ knowledge variability. It investigates whether one learner of French produces errors/mistakes in one task but not in another.
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Incorporating International Telecollaboration into a Language Teacher Education Course
Shannon Sauro
The Cyber Language Exchange is an online international collaborative exchange integrated into a joint teacher-training course in linguistics for students in an MA-TESL program and preservice certification track for undergraduates seeking an ESL endorsement. This presentation will explore the implementation of this collaborative project and will outline strategies for designing and incorporating CMC opportunities and relevant computer-mediated pedagogical tasks for language learning and language teaching in non-CALLfocused teacher education courses.
Recording of this session

Apex Learning’s Online World Language Solutions
Lisa Frumkes
Apex Learning provides digital curricula for differentiated instruction. Our online learning solutions are used in credit recovery, remediation, alternative schools, and distance-learning situations, as well as in traditional classroom settings. Apex Learning’s complete high school curriculum currently includes French I, French II, AP French, Spanish I, Spanish II, and AP Spanish. In this presentation, the developer of these courses will demonstrate how these materials can be used at the secondary and postsecondary level to meet students’ varying foreign language education needs in cost- and time-effective ways.

Recording of this session

Rosetta Stone Immersion Software for Navajo Language Revitalization
Marion Bittinger
The Rosetta Stone Endangered Language Program is working with Navajo language experts to develop Navajo Rosetta Stone language-learning software for use in Navajo Nation schools and chapter houses. The project has been endorsed by the Navajo Nation Board of Education and is slated for completion within a year. The software is being customized through a collaborative process to accommodate the complex and vibrant Navajo language. See examples of the Navajo Rosetta Stone software and learn about the role that technology can play in language revitalization among North American Native groups.
Recording of this session

Engagement, Differentiation, and Critical Thinking: Opportunities in TELL Classrooms
Joy Egbert
Hyun Gyung Lee
Jian Shian Su
As teachers we need to be explicit about our goals and processes, grounding our instruction in theory and research. Although we may not always be able to access all of the research that is conducted in the fields of inquiry that address technology-enhanced language learning (TELL), we can and should use a research-based learning framework as a guide to more closely align theory with practice. This interactive presentation links research and practice in a format that can help teachers choose strategies and tools for engaging language learners, differentiating instruction, and supporting broad goals such as critical thinking in technology-enhanced classrooms.

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Social Language Learning: RSS-based Personal Learning Environments
Esperanza Roman Mendoza
RSS technologies, particularly in the form of aggregators and social personalized start pages, can help internet users select, filter, organize, and manipulate information of all kinds. Used as instructional tools, these technologies can lead to scalable, informative, and productive learning processes that encourage multichannel communication and collaboration. This presentation analyzes the implementation of RSS technologies to create language learning environments in which students, through goal-oriented learning, can understand cultural contexts, develop multiple literacies, employ different channels for interaction, and discover new social dimensions. An example from the field of heritage language education is included to illustrate these RSS uses.

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3:30 – 4:15

Correlating Quantitative Measures of Speech with Perceptions of Fluency
Garry Molholt
Maria Jose Cabrera
V. Krishna Kumar
Phillip Thompsen
Recent research projects provide differing perspectives regarding which aspects of speech signals can best predict listeners’ perceptions of fluency. For this study, spontaneous speech was elicited from 45 college freshmen who were familiar with their topic. Their files were analyzed according to the quantitative measures of rate of speech, phonation-time ratio, pitch variation, and mean length of runs. In addition, qualitative measures, including phoneme clarity and the quality of the vocabulary were also measured. Files were rated by 97 listeners for clarity, confidence, and fluency. Results show the extent to which quantitative measures alone can predict perceptions of fluency and the types of files for which the inclusion of qualitative measures improves correlations.

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Second Life Chinese School: Iterative Design for Embodiment and Game Play
Dongping Zheng
Kenneth Wade Dirkin
Yong Zhao
In this paper we use a design-based research method to systematically examine how new designs change the environment for interaction with native speakers and among symmetrical interlocutors within a semester-long distance-learning course in Second Life Chinese School. The design framework will help unfold how the second iterative design cycle came into action with formative evaluation. Finally we will make the point that designing for an embodied experience will provide learners with opportunities in engaging in situated language learning that is meaningful and sustainable.
Recording of this session
Demonstrate: Online Portfolio System for Language Learners
Danielle Steider
Anne Marie Baker
Dennie Hoopingarner
In the Demonstrate portfolio system, users can upload artifacts o their language learning, including test scores, documents, presentations, audio, video, and images. From this database of their work, they can create multiple web-based portfolios for multiple purposes and audiences. There is a feedback mechanism so instructors, administrators, or peers can leave formative feedback for individual portfolios. This presentation will highlight the functionality of the program as well as practical uses for formative assessment, summative assessment, teacher training, and marketing oneself for career or educational opportunities.
Recording of this session

Positive Changes in Learner Identity through Foreign Language Chat
Adam Mendelson
Chat transcripts from a semester-long online tutoring project for university students of Spanish reveal a positive transformation of a focal student’s online representation as a learner and user of the language. This student went from presenting himself as an inadequate speaker and frustrated student to an autonomous user of the language who regularly took advantage of opportunities to speak Spanish. The implications of his transformation include the need to explore interpersonal relationships that span virtual and physical environments, as well as the need to problematize strict divisions between online and offline identities.
Recording of this session

Google Apps for Online Teacher Training: AATJ Japanese Online Instruction Network for Teachers
Takeshi Sengiku
Eiko Ushida
Google Apps provides Web 2.0 social-networking features for communication and collaboration. Can we use Google Apps instead of wikis, blogs, or Moodles to develop online courses? We examine this question from three perspectives: communication, collaboration, and instruction. The Alliance of Associations of Teachers of Japanese (AATJ) has launched an online professional development program, JOINT (Japanese Online Instruction Network for Teachers), using Google Apps and other interactive technologies. The initial pilot JOINT course, “Content-Based Instruction for Advanced Japanese,” was developed and offered in Fall 2008 and will be offered again in winter 2009. This presentation will report on the course development, evaluation of participants, and successes and challenges in using Google Apps for online teacher-training courses.

iPhone CALL: Data-Driven Learning for Mobile Devices
J. Scott Payne
Miodrag Glumac
The capabilities of Apple’s iPhone offer unique opportunities for mobile language learners. In this presentation, we will demonstrate a data-driven learning application designed specifically for the iPhone and provide an overview of iPhone application development.
Recording of this session

4:30 – 5:15

Teacher’s Second Life (SL) Toolbox: A TBLT Curriculum for Incorporating SL into the Language Learning Classroom
Susan Faivre
Implementing Second Life (SL) as a vehicle for multilayered strategies in ESL/EFL classrooms can be an effective means of teaching in a new and exciting virtual environment. However, introduction to the tool can be tedious and time consuming and can detract from the course objectives. This presentation introduces a practical TBLT curriculum for incorporating SL: a website companion, machinima training videos, TBLT activities, a teacher guide, and in-world “boxes” of companion teaching materials. Though the training materials can be adapted to most classrooms, this project’s capstone task is an adapted business proposal unit.

Individual Factors and Successful Online L2 Learning
Robert Blake
Kelly Bilinski
What factors make for a successful L2 learning experience within a hybrid format? The results of this study point to the following individual factors as crucial to a successful online learning experience: learner discipline and affective variables, ability to collaborate in groups, and preference for auditory/kinetic learning styles. All students studied introductory Spanish with a suite of multimedia materials previously published in a DVD format but now delivered within a MOODLE wrapper that included SCORM-compliant activities and a Flash-based CMC tool. The learning materials and SCORM activities will be demonstrated and results of the profile analysis will be discussed.
Recording of this session

Automatic Input Processing for Activities with Target Answers
Luiz A. Amaral
The PINATA (Processing Input for Activities with Target Answers) project develops natural language processing (NLP) tools to analyze learner language independently of the type of activity. The general goal of the project is to achieve a high degree of portability of the NLP error analysis modules in a way that different CALL systems could use them to generate linguistic analyses of student input. The PINATA system receives as input the student answer and a set of possible target answers and generates as output feedback messages about the linguistic properties of the input. Currently there are NLP modules being developed for Spanish and French.

Collaborative Writing and Web 2.0: Realities, Challenges, and Opportunities
Greg Kessler
Dawn Bikowski
This paper integrates findings from three recent studies investigating NNES student discourse in collaborative writing projects using wikis and Google documents. Attention to form, focus on meaning, and response to feedback were studied in varied interactions. Implications for a shift in research and practice regarding collaborative writing will be discussed.
Recording of this session

Pageflakes Versus Blackboard. The LMS Winner, by TKO … Pageflakes
Michael Heller
Enza Antenos-Conforti
Patty Kahn
Innovative uses of technology could transform an instructor’s pedagogy by promoting a social constructivist learning environment suitable for today’s learner. Montclair State University analyzed the impact of using Pageflakes, a personalized online desktop, as an alternative to Blackboard along with integrating innovative uses of Web 2.0 technologies into the curriculum in an intermediate Italian course. This project will investigate the anticipated benefits of Pageflakes, where an integrated platform provides a systematic and interactive learning environment that accommodates the different learning styles in support of 21st century learner preferences and characteristics.

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Corpus Linguistic Approaches to the Analysis of Formulaic Sequences in L2 Spanish Computer-Mediated Learner Language Use
Steven Thorne
Julieta Fernandez
Aziz Yuldashev
This presentation reports the results of a quantitative analysis of> in- and out-of-class blog and instant-messaging use occurring in a high school Spanish foreign language course. The presenters use corpus linguistic methodologies to examine aspects of language development and focus particularly on formulaic sequences. The presentation concludes with a discussion of the utility of CMC tools for promoting language learning and the use of corpus linguistic tools to track changes in language development at various levels.
Recording of this session

Auf Deutsch mit deinem Podcast, bitte! Innovative Use of Digital Media Portfolios, Podcasting, and German> Content in Standards-Based Classroom Instruction
Peter Schultz
This presentation highlights podcasting, iMovie, and Windows Movie Maker as innovative technology tools for video production in German for high school teachers and learners. These tools are products that teachers and students can learn and implement easily to produce quality speaking and visual portfolios. Digital video portfolios support curriculum planning by meeting foreign language standards mandated by state education departments and address technology standards such as the NETS-S of ISTE. This work can also help add to the latest research in teacher education by informing teachers and researchers of innovative uses of digital portfolios in high school foreign language programs.
Recording of this session

Note: the company that provided Speakerbox recordings is no longer in operation.

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Conference Presentations: Day Three

March 14, 2009

8:00 – 8:45

Ethical Issues in CALL: How They Affect Both Teachers and Students
Shudong Wang
Neil Heffernan
Ethical issues, such as digital copyright, online privacy and security, nonbiased language knowledge delivery, and equity of online instruction are important issues in CALL. This paper aims to delineate the major issues of CALL ethics in current foreign language e-learning settings based on data collected from surveys among CALL teachers and students in Japan. The main issues of CALL ethics are discussed, along with teacher and student ethics self-assessments, perceptions, and ideals of ethical issues in CALL. The paper also proposes possible solutions to these ethical problems.

Recording of this session

Developing Intelligent Online Web Exercises for Russian
Markus Dickinson
Joshua Herring
Chris Riley
Building from the TAGARELA system for Portuguese, we develop an ICALL system for learners of Russian with the goal of providing exercises in the healthcare domain to beginning and advanced learners. Offering general exercises in this specific context requires the activity model to separate exercise content from domain and cultural content. A more general web framework allows the system to scale up to more exercises and potentially other languages. The richer morphology and freer word order of Russian requires the expert model to integrate morphological analysis and develop parsing methods to diagnose ill-formed input, which we do with limited resources.
Recording of this session

The Electronic Portfolio as Assessment Tool and More: The Drake University Model
Marc Cadd
The Drake University Language Acquisition Program provides a unique learning environment for its students. Because of its emphasis on oral proficiency, culture, and the development within students of a sense of responsibility for their own language-learning experience, the electronic portfolio is a central and indispensable feature of the program. Audio samples, writing samples, projects completed with Web 2.0 technologies, and an assessment of cultural proficiency are all vital artifacts placed in ePortfolios by students. This presentation will describe how Drake uses these portfolios, how they are assessed, and their applicability for a wide variety of programs.
Recording of this session

Practice Makes Perfect: Promises and Pitfalls of Online Workbooks for Skills Development and Speaking Proficiency
Eduardo García Villada
Online workbooks offer meaningful activities and instant scoring of student performance, but what do these performance data tell us about student language proficiency? Participants will learn about a study that compares student speaking proficiency with their perceptions of skills improvement in three language programs and two delivery systems. The presenter will discuss advantages and disadvantages of online workbook use, along with directions for integration of online materials in different curriculum contexts.

Online Collaborative Writing and Peer Editing
Frances Matos-Schultz
Pablo Viedma
Taking the lead from learners in a student-driven hybrid course environment at the University of Minnesota, we have moved the focus of writing from an instructor’s mandate to an online learner community of collaboration. In this community the writers/learners take ownership over the text and share the task with other writers exposing them to the process of writing from a brand new standpoint, that of collaborators and critics. The software focuses mainly on collaborative writing and peer editing. The presenters will briefly demonstrate the tool and discuss experiences and findings.
Recording of this session

The Flashcard Evolution: An Old-School Learning Technology Gets a Digital Makeover
Jim Ranalli
Flashcards have been around for a long time, but with the advent of the personal computer and the internet, they have become more powerful than ever. They retain their original benefits: portability, ideal quizzing potential, and the ability to prioritize among items. But today’s digital versions offer so much more: multimedia annotation; tagging to allow categorizing, sorting, and searching; alternative review modes featuring games and puzzles; and algorithms that facilitate optimized scheduling of reviews according to psychological principles. This presentation will summarize the cognitive benefits of flashcards and then profile several of the most innovative and powerful tools that represent this new generation.

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Creating an Authentic Online Learning Community: Facebook Use in Beginning-Level Chinese Classes
Li Jin
Beginning-level students are very often disoriented about the ultimate purposes of learning a foreign language, especially a difficult language such as Chinese. This presentation discusses an empirical study investigating the effectiveness and caveats of integrating Facebook projects in university-level beginning Chinese language classes with a purpose of promoting authentic learning and using Chinese as a foreign language. Student interaction patterns, perceptions about using Facebook in the class projects, language acquisition as well as language instructor evaluation of the integration of Facebook will be presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of integrating Facebook in beginning-level Chinese language teaching.
Recording of this session

9:00am – 10:30am
Extended Panel Presentation

The Role of Language Resource Centers in the Era of Ubiquitous Computing
Mary Beth Barth
Cindy Evans
Michael Jones
This panel will consider the mission of the language resource center and role of the center director vis-à-vis the college-wide IT organization. The panelists, Mary Beth Barth (Hamilton College), Cindy Evans (Skidmore College), and Michael Jones (Swarthmore College) direct language centers at small liberal arts colleges. While our institutions share many similarities, our positions and our centers present different profiles with unique advantages and challenges. The panel will address a variety of questions from our different perspectives and invite active participation from the audience.

9:00 – 9:45

Less is More? A Comparison of the Effects of a Hybrid and a Traditional Language Class
Fernando Rubio
Tim Cannon
This presentation reports on the results of 2 years of research on the effects of a hybrid course on the level of oral and written proficiency of first-year university students of Spanish. The students were enrolled in a course that met face-to-face for 2 hours a week with an additional 2 virtual days of online work. The study looks at a variety of measures of proficiency and fluency and compares the results to those obtained by a group of students enrolled in the same class taught in a traditional format (4 hours of face-to-face instruction per week).
Recording of this session

Collaborative Writing in Wikis: Insights from Culture Projects in Intermediate German Classes
Claudia Kost
Nike Arnold
Lara Ducate
This presentation reports the findings of a study designed to investigate the collaborative writing and revision processes of foreign language learners in a wiki environment. Specifically, it is based on a comparison of two wiki projects in intermediate German classes in which small groups of students used wikis to collaborate on a project based on cultural and historical topics related to a novel. The archived versions of the wiki were analyzed for the amount, type, and quality of revisions. In addition, an end-of-semester survey was administered to assess learner attitudes towards the project and perceptions of the writing process.

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The Role of Computer-Mediated Scaffolding in Academic Literacy Development
Wei Zhu
This presentation discusses a case study which examined the role of computer-mediated scaffolding in nonnative English speaking students’ development of academic literacy in university content classrooms. Six primary participants demonstrated their understanding and negotiation of task requirements, completion of individual writing activities, and comprehension and appreciation of academic literacy conventions through two-way peer-to-peer scaffolding via online discussion boards. The findings indicated that computermediated collective scaffolding enabled students to rehearse and refine academic writing and understand literacy requirements and conventions. The presenters will also describe the research methodology and discuss the implications of the study for both research and classroom instruction.

First-Year Spanish and Italian projects: Calm Technology Design and Integration of Digital Media in Second Language Learning
Antonio Gragera
Moira DiMauro-Jackson
This session presents two linguistic initiatives being shaped in the Department of Modern Languages at Texas State University. These two projects combine their developers’ personal stands on second language learnability and on the role of intercultural collaboration in learning a foreign language. Each project represents one distinctive end of the continuum between technology integration and calm technology that the term “ubiquitous computing” evokes. On one hand, the project for first-year Italian integrates different sources of digital media and technology to facilitate individual learning by connecting second language learners with native speakers of the target language. On the other hand, the project for first-year Spanish addresses principles of attention, from the fields of developmental psychology and neurosciences, and multimodal-aural and visuallearning by “centering the periphery” through an online meaning negotiator.

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What Happens When Technology Isn’t Ubiquitous: Teaching Distance Language Teacher Education Classes in Rural Alaska
Marilee Coles-Ritchie
Sabine Siekmann
In this presentation, we will present data collected over the past 2 years while delivering distance language education courses for K-12 teachers in immersion and ELL settings. The presenters share challenges and solutions in a situation in which computing is by no means ubiquitous due to physical, social, and technological distance. Data are organized in four themes: (a) course preparation, (b) course delivery options, (c) student feedback, and (d) our own reflections on the process. By sharing our successes and challenges in creating a hybrid multimodal delivery model, we hope to contribute to the effectiveness of distance education.

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From Media to Hypermedia: Increasing the Pedagogical Value of Foreign Language Audio and Video Materials through Hypermedia Conversion
Thom Thibeault
Hind Rmail
This session focuses on the pedagogical advantages of converting audio and video materials accompanying language textbooks into hypermedia transcripts. Hypermedia allows students to click on unfamiliar words in a foreign language text in order to access relevant media that expands understanding. Words can be linked to text, images, video, audio, animations, and Web links. The presentation highlights the software program, Hypermedia Editor. This program allows instructors to create their own hypermedia units. After discussing the theory behind Hypermedia Editor, the presenters will demonstrate how the program works. A free download of Hypermedia Editor is available for Macintosh and Windows.
Recording of this session

10:00 – 10:45

Learner Training in CALL
Alan Bessette
CALL offers language learners many potentially beneficial possibilities for improving their language skills, but, to make full use of those possibilities, learners must be trained in how to use CALL. This presentation reports the results of an action research project in learner training. The presentation reports on initial surveys and interviews about student attitudes towards the CALL materials and their ideas about how the materials could be more fully exploited. It will also report on the training program in which students were taught goal setting, exploitation, and review strategies. Finally, the presentation will report on student attitudes and reactions.

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National Foreign Language Instructional Technology Survey
Greg Kessler
Senta Goertler
Jack Burston
Though the volume of articles written about CALL during the past 25 years gives the impression of high levels of integration of technology into the foreign language curriculum, very little is actually known about how, or even whether, teachers really use technology in their classrooms. The aim of our presentation is to (a) draw attention to our lack of knowledge about foreign language instructional technology usage in American colleges and universities, (b) describe the design of a survey that seeks to fill this gap in our knowledge, and (c) present the preliminary results of the pilot testing of this survey.
Recording of this session

Timing Repetition to Enhance Listening Comprehension
Anne O’Bryan
This presentation will detail a primarily qualitative investigation into the impact two forms of repeated input, whole-text and individual semantic units (i.e., episodes), have on helping English as a second language (ESL) students remedy common problems encountered while listening to an academic lecture and continue to move fluently through the three recognized phases of listening comprehension. ESL learners at the low, intermediate, and advanced listening proficiency levels participate in verbal protocol sessions, semi-structured interviews, and take notes in order to answer the proposed research questions. This study will have implications for materials developers, teachers, and learners.

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From CALL to MALL: Portable Device Applications for Language Texts and Digital Media
Mary Ann Lyman-Hager
John Vitaglione
Cellular technology offers high-speed data transfer affording users multimedia access on their personal digital assistants and smart phones. LARC’s Mobile Assisted Language Learning applications enable language learners to read glossed texts and play digital resources on their mobile devices. Web Gloss is a dynamic glossing tool for adding hot-word links that play multimedia annotations on a mobile device. The Mobile Media Archive permits users to select course modules from LARC’s web-based Digital Media Archive via their cell phones and play them anywhere. This presentation discusses Everyware and how teachers and learners can use these free applications for accessing resources and contributing new content.
Recording of this session

Blended Learning, Self-Managed Learning, and CALL: A Report on Student and Teacher Attitudes and Experiences
Jacob E. Larsen
Suzanne van der Valk
Blended learning is becoming increasingly popular at colleges across the US due to its perceived benefits for both students and educational institutions. Likewise, it has been argued that in today’s
college environment student abilities to self-manage their learning has a great impact on their academic success. This presentation will focus on an on-going study in which blended learning and self managed learning are used in conjunction with authentic, online CALL materials to teach an advanced level course in an intensive English program. Preliminary data on student and teacher attitudes and experiences will be shared.

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Glossing and Annotation Tools: Past, Present, and Future
Lathrop P. Johnson
It is not such a long stretch from the interlinear and marginal glosses of Antiquity and the Middle Ages to the multimedia annotations for foreign language text possible with today’s technology. This presentation will briefly summarize research with electronic annotations. It will then describe and demonstrate the capabilities of some of the earlier electronic annotation tools and present a variety of viable options available today. Finally, it will sketch desirable directions for annotation tools of the future, emphasizing ease of use for the teacher and usefulness for the student.

11:00 – 11:20

A Corpus-Based Analysis of Spoken Features and Epistemic Devices in L2 Writing
Lingxia Jin
This study uses corpus data (including both learner corpus and native English speaker corpora) in order to examine the characteristics of Chinese learner written English. It aims to test the hypothesis whether Chinese English learners will use more spoken-like features, in particular, spoken-like epistemic devices to express certainty and doubts in their English academic writing and how this compares with native English academic writing. Pedagogical implications will be discussed.
Recording of this session

Producing Digital Videos: A Sociocultural Approach
Luba Iskold
Students frequently experience problems utilizing their listening and communicative skills acquired via formal learning in everyday contexts. The presenter will discuss sociocultural approaches to language acquisition and the pros and cons associated with the Legacy Project in her conversation and composition class. Students conducted and videotaped interviews with representatives of the local Russian community and produced DVDs with video, full interview transcripts in the target language and in English, as well as glossaries and cultural glosses. A template to organize, deliver, and use student-produced materials will be presented and discussed. The template may be used for any language.

Recording of this session Presentation slides and examples
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CALL and Perceptual Training for the ESL Classroom
Lisa R. Pierce
Su-Youn Yoon
This research reports on a web-based application designed to be a delivery system for perceptual category training in the context of pronunciation instruction in ESL classrooms. Exemplar training has been successfully used in laboratory settings for perception research and in clinical environments for the remediation of expressive phonological impairment. The increasing use of computerassisted language learning (CALL) in second language classrooms suggests a natural extension of this methodology; however, with only one exception [6], such methods have made few inroads into language teaching programs. This work reports on a pilot study in which ESL students were trained to perceive [l] and [r]. Students in the experimental group who underwent exemplar training made statistically significant gains in perceiving nonnative phonemic categories in comparison to those ESL students who did not undergo training.
Recording of this session

Integrating Student-Centered Video into the Classroom
Olaf Böhlke
The use of video in the classroom has become a lot easier with the recent advances in technology. Teachers in smart classrooms at the presenter’s institution have at a minimum access to a ceiling projector, a DVD/VHS player, and the internet. While the presentation of videos has become less of a challenge within these classrooms, it appears to be still challenging for many instructors to plan, schedule, create, edit, and eventually publish student-centered videos. This presentation will explore the rationale for doing such projects and guide teachers through this multistep process.
Presentation video and Links

Facebook in the Language Classroom: Perspectives on Sociopragmatic Development
Melissa Fiori
Geraldine Blattner
Many college students are members of the well known social network Facebook, which offers a variety of opportunities for language learners to develop L2 sociopragmatic competence, an aspect that is often limited in textbooks. This study examines whether interaction in Facebook groups heightened awareness of language variety. The results of self-assessment questionnaires and analysis of student participation on various discussion forums suggest that such social networking facilitates the development of sociopragmatic awareness through authentic target-language input and occasion to engage with native speakers about topics of personal interest to the learners.

11:30 – 11:50

The Development of Materials for Hybrid Spanish Courses
Julio C. Rodriguez
Cristina Pardo-Ballester
The application of design-based research guidelines to the design and development of materials for language learning affords excellent opportunities to implement a principled approach to produce materials that integrate relevant SLA findings. In this presentation, we will describe a design-based research approach to the development of materials for hybrid elementary and intermediate Spanish courses. Relevant SLA hypotheses as well as principles of blended learning will be addressed in relation to their impact on the design of the materials and the learning experiences envisioned by the designers. We will report preliminary data from three pilots.
Recording of this presentation

EFL Bloggers’ Language-Learning Identity
Nathaniel Carney
Identity’s relationship with language learning has received significant attention within the last decade, but most such studies focus on learners in second language contexts or study abroad. Studies of identity and foreign language learners remain uncommon. This study examines language learner identity through a number of Japanese university English language learners’ individually maintained blogs written weekly over a period of 21 months as class assignments for required English classes. The study specifically looks at participants’ development of identities as “English users” and as a community of bloggers in the language classroom.
Recording of this presentation

Automatic Profiling of Learner Corpora
Ekaterina Arshavskaya
This study was designed to find out whether ESL students of various L1s lack knowledge of academic vocabulary and instead opt for informal doublets. Part-of-speech profiles in the BAWE database (native speaker corpus) and MELD (ESL corpus) were compared. In the second part of the study, POS profiles of more advanced ESL learners (BAWE ESL corpus) and the same native speaker corpus (BAWE) were compared. The first study re-confirmed the speechlike nature of learner writing of upper-level ESL students (Granger & Rayson, 1998) of different L1s. Upper level ESL learners lack knowledge of academic vocabulary. However, the second part of this study showed that with longer exposure to the L2, writing skills of L2 learners may approach those of native speakers.
Recording of this presentation

Scaffolding Telecollaboration to Bridge the North-South Divide
Jonathan Haddad
This paper explores issues for designing telecollaboration projects in the context of differentials in human development and the resulting digital divide. It examines the assumptions of traditional native speaker (NS) to nonnative speaker (NNS) exchanges and NS-NS tandems, and uses Algeria as an example of a country of medium human development where neither model would apply. In the context of teaching US secondary students of French about Algerian culture, the paper discusses how existing social networking platforms and partner-country discussion boards may be used not only to facilitate computer-mediated communication among partners but also to model intercultural communicative competence.
Recording of this presentation

Use of Wikis in Developing Intercultural Competence
Rose Spicher
The current literature in CALL contains extensive documentation of the use of telecollaboration to increase language students’ intercultural competence. Wikis, a relatively new online resource for collaborative writing projects (McDonald, 2007; Mac & Coniam, 2008; Kessler, 2007), provide an original way for students to collaboratively negotiate a shared understanding of each other’s cultures, but they are, as yet, largely unexplored by CALL researchers. This presentation reports on an initial exploration of the nature of language use within a cultural glossary wiki shared by American and Indonesian university students.
Recording of this presentation

Comparative Analysis of Learning Management Systems in Malaysia
Supyan Hussin
Ismie Roha
This paper presents a comparative analysis of two LMSs from two different institutions in Malaysia emphasizing the challenges in developing the LMSs for ODL program, the level of readiness among teachers and students, and the international standards from a language pedagogy perspective.
Recording of this presentation

1:30 – 3:00
Extended Panel Presentation

The Best of CALICO for Teachers: Online Tools that are Hot, New, and Free
Gillian Lord
Lara Lomicka Anderson
This session offers language teachers, particularly those teaching at the K-12 level, an overview of current (and free) tools in technology. We will briefly present the latest tools for blogs, wikis, podcasting, social networking, and so on and discuss their pros and cons, benefits and challenges. Participants will learn how each technological tool can be used to its fullest potential in a language class.

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1:30 – 2:15

Beyond Motivation: How Self is Self? An Exercise in Theoretical Validation of Empirical Findings in CALL
Jozef Colpaert
This presentation reports on an exercise in theoretical validation of experimental findings in educational engineering. I will provide an overview of relevant theories and concepts in literature such as self-determination theory, goal-setting theory, attribution theory, expectancy-value theory, VIE (valence, instrumentality, expectancy) theory, self-efficacy, and the technology acceptance model, next to related concepts such as affordances, volition, and praxeology and show to what extent they confirm, contradict, or enrich the findings. I will discuss problems associated with detection and elicitation of relevant information about the learner and other actors and how to reformulate this as indicators of positive assertive will.

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L2 Address Behavior Development through SCMC
Marta Gonzalez-Lloret
This paper presents the potential of synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC) to promote pragmatic competence among language learners in a higher education context: specifically, the development of their L2 address system and their interactive resources to display closeness when engaged in communication with L1 speakers. Through conversation analysis (CA), the sequential organization of SCMC between Spanish L1 speakers and L2 learners was analyzed to discover what type of address behavior they exhibited, as well as documenting change in their pragmalinguistic resources and patterns of interaction. The findings suggest that SCMC can be a valuable tool for the development of the Spanish address system.

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Bringing Together Error Correction and Learner Corpus Analysis: A New Look at Written Corrective Feedback in Teaching Beginning German
Nina Vyatkina
Joseph Cunningham
This paper reports on the short-term and long-term effects of computer-mediated written corrective feedback (WCF) in comparison with other feedback types in an elementary German course. Electronic error tagging serves as an instrument for achieving both pedagogical and research purposes of the study.

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Multimedia Exams: Computerized Testing at BYU
Russell Hansen
The College of Humanities at Brigham Young University initially established a multimedia examination lab to give computerized exams for lower level Spanish and German courses. This lab has now expanded to provides services to a broader spectrum of courses and languages. The use of computers to administer exams has not only avoided encumbering valuable language class instruction and interaction, but it has also enabled instructors to employ several different types of media in their exams in a seamless fashion while collecting student responses in a more agreeable format.
Recording of this presentation

Building a $50 Interactive Whiteboard for the Language Classroom
Christopher S. Hill
Interactive whiteboards, sometimes called by one brand name, Smartboards, put an interactive computer display on a classroom wall. High cost can keep this technology out of teachers’ hands. But freely available software can be used to create interactive whiteboards for under $50. Instructions will be provided and successful application of this technology in a variety of classroom environments will be discussed and demonstrated.
Recording of this presentation

2:30 – 3:15

Improving Pronunciation with Podcasts
Hajime Kumahata
Peggy Patterson
Podcasts can be an important instructional asset for improving student pronunciation in any language. Because beginning students are overwhelmed with the amount of information they have to process in class, we often neglect pronunciation. We created two podcasts that can be accessed by language learners outside of the classroom. One podcast focuses on regional variations of Spanish. The second podcast discusses different English sounds that are commonly heard in the Spanish of beginning language learners. With this podcast students learn how these English sounds influence their pronunciation giving them an American accent and how to improve their Spanish pronunciation.

Recording of this session

Turning Language Learners into Linguists? First Experiences of Learners with a New Corpus-Driven Language-Learning Tool
Peter Wood
While electronic dictionaries have been used in CALL applications for some time, the question of whether they have any advantages for the learning of vocabulary and word formation rules is still a matter of debate (cf. e.g., De Ridder, 2002; Laufer, 2000). Providing learners with a convenient way to look up translations of unknown words certainly helps them understand a text faster than with a conventional dictionary, but CALL applications, I argue, have to provide more than that. Can we, by providing sophisticated features like corpus access and concordances, enable students to carry out independent research, encourage them to focus on various aspects of the new vocabulary, and to retain it?

Improving Language Programs through Online Assessment, Data Collection, and Analysis
Susan Cefola
The School District of Pittsburgh created and currently implements district-wide online assessments and practice activities with funding from three FLAP grants. This session will demonstrate the online assessments and activities and provide information about the world language program from the data that have been collected and analyzed.
Recording of this session

Attention to Feedback in Multimedia Applications: The Role of the Complexity of the L2 Forms
Jesus Izquierdo
This study investigated whether the complexity of L2 past tense forms in a multimedia application would have an impact on learners’ attention to L2 past tense feedback provided in the form of metalinguistic clues. The findings suggest that the complexity of the L2 forms present in the environment and the manner of feedback delivery mediated learners’ attention to feedback. Based on these results, implications for the integration of feedback in L2 multimedia applications and the use of these applications in language classrooms will be discussed.

Technology for French Learning: A Mismatch Between Expectations and Reality
Kimberly LeVelle
Jinrong Li
Aliye Karabulut-Ilgu
Ruslan Suvorov
The presentation reports a multiple-case study of technology use by students enrolled in a third-year university French language class that integrates technology-based language learning activities involving the internet, movies, wikis, WebCT, and “clickers.” Interviews with the teacher and students throughout the semester show how and to what extent students use the technologies suggested by the teacher both in class and outside of class for French learning purposes.

Recording of this session

SCMC Environment from the Socioconstructivist Point of View: Topic Coherence and Interactional Features of Text-Only Chat Versus Virtual Chat in Second Life
Min Jung Jee
This study explores topic coherence and interactional patterns of synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC) based on the socioconstructivist point of view. The main purpose of the study is to compare interaction patterns of text-only chat on the Teach- Net to virtual chat in Second Life. With topic coherence, specific interaction patterns examined are greetings, leave takings, off-task discussion, and intersubjectivity. The overall research question is to examine the difference between the text-only chat and virtual chat in terms of topic coherence and interactional patterns.
Recording of this session

3:30 – 4:15

The Motivational Trajectory and Learning Strategies of ESL Learners in an Entirely Web-Based Writing Environment
Jie Zhang
Online learning constitutes a new community of practice, in which learners establish new routines and negotiate different meanings through the mediation of computers. In this study, I looked at an entirely web-based ESL writing course in a northwestern university and conducted an analysis of two students to find out what makes a strategic learner in an online environment. Data from different sources were collected. The data indicated that learners who have good self-regulatory skills and integrative motivation tend to benefit more, whereas those who have difficulties in regulating themselves through computers with an instrumental motivation are more likely to be frustrated.

Recording of this session

Letter-by-Letter: Can the Chat Interface and Display Impact L2 Learning?
Jill Pellettieri
Bryan Smith
This presentation reports on a study comparing L2 learner interaction mediated by two types of text-based SCMC interfaces (a standard compose-and-post vs. a shared-screen, immediate transmission interface we have developed) to examine how features unique to each impact noticing and attention to form. We analyze and compare keystroke logs of L2 learner dyads engaged in two similar information-gap tasks, each mediated by a different interface. We discuss this shared-screen software and the implications of our findings for pedagogy and future SCMC research of SLA oriented hypotheses.

Wiki as a Collaborative Language- Learning Tool
Linda Bradley
The purpose of this presentation is to present an investigation of language-learning activities that students are engaged in when using a wiki as a collaborative tool in a language course in higher education. Environments that support peer work are interesting from both a communicative and a language-learning perspective. Methods used for this study were observations of the wiki where the contents were analyzed and categorized into activities that could be distinguished. The results suggest that wikis have a potential to support collaborative language learning in which peer work and feedback play an important role.

Recording of this session

Building Learner Fluency and Accuracy in Chinese via CMC
Dongdong Chen
This study explores the effectiveness of ITALKI-based CMC. Thirty college beginners of Chinese practiced Chinese 2 hours weekly with educated native speakers for 12 weeks using ITALKI, a language exchange system applying Web 2.0 technology. Learners were later interviewed by a native speaker and also submitted written work. The same tests were administered to another group of 20 beginners of Chinese who had the same learning conditions except that they did not receive any online communication with native speakers. Results indicated that the experimental group showed better fluency and accuracy as compared to the control group.

Français interactif: A Case Study in Open Educational Publishing
Karen W. Kelton
Nancy Guilloteau
This presentation will discuss the development and evolution of the web-based, beginning French curriculum at the University of Texas. The flexibility of digital technology allows adaptation of the content in response to a continuing cycle of formative evaluation, a process not possible in traditional textbooks. Tex’s French Grammar and Français interactif are open access websites, that is, no passwords or fees are required. This French curriculum has gone global and is increasingly used by students, teachers, and institutions throughout the world. As a result, developers are faced with the challenges and opportunities of producing open educational resources for a worldwide community.

Recording of this session

Cutting the Apron Strings with CALL: Turning ESL Students into Self-Sufficient College Writers
Paul Sundberg
Sarah Jarboe
John Leidenheimer
ESL writing courses typically offer learners valuable textbook-based presentation and practice but too often leave them dependent and ill-equipped for actual college writing. This presentation describes a multi-class research project to train advanced ESL students (a) to use computer-based writing resources and (b) to develop a variety of writing strategies for using them in order to become autonomous university-level writers. CALL resources used included online dictionaries, thesauri, grammar and spelling checkers, grammar and style references, and web-based corpora for collocation testing. Learning outcomes among classes receiving the CALL treatment are compared with control group classes using primarily textbookbased methodologies.

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Conducting Experimental Studies of L2 Instruction on the Web: Requirements and Solutions
Fenfang Hwu
Ching-yeh Tzseng
Researchers recognize that large amounts of data can lead to much stronger conclusions. Computers are advantageous in this regard because they are capable of delivering learning activities to a large number of learners and maintaining consistency in the delivery. Nevertheless, because of the availability of computer labs and students’ schedules, it may be impossible to conduct such a study on campus during or outside class. Conducting such a study on the web seems to be a solution to these problems. However, in such an environment special considerations need to be taken and solutions need to be reached. In this presentation we will share our experience in designing and implementing a web-based research study with about 500 potential participants.
Recording of this session

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