Conference Presentations Day Three

June 12

 8:00 – 8:45

Preparing Faculty to Teach Online: A Case Study
Edwige Simon University of Colorado-Boulder
Over the last decade, the deployment of online education has grown exponentially. Unfortunately, the significant increase in the number of students studying online has not been associated with corresponding advances in the preparation of educators to teach online. This presentation will introduce the results of a case study meant to explore ways to provide this preparation. In spring 2009, five graduates students were invited to take a graduate course on online course design. As a capstone project, they developed and taught a 3-week online language course. This presentation will report on the findings from this research project.
Spaced Rehearsal: Long-term Vocabulary Retention
Ulf Schuetze University of Victoria
Gerlinde Weimer-Stuckmann University of Victoria
This paper reports on a two-year study carried out with 350 first-year German students on second language vocabulary retention. The study used an online vocabulary program that had previously been tested. Based on the theories of working memory, speech production, and research carried out in cognitive psychology on spaced rehearsal, the main research question investigated graduated rehearsal intervals (the interval between each rehearsal increases) versus uniform rehearsal intervals (the interval remains constant). Results showed that in either interval, students needed to rehearse words four times in a time period of eight days in order to retrieve them correctly.

Computer-assisted Transcription and Analysis of Audio, Video, Classroom Discourse

Karen Price

Understanding the process of second language acquisition entails understanding the process of interaction. A wide range of software exists specifically for use in analyzing and cataloguing language interactions and content recorded in digital video and audio. Tools for the analysis of spoken language can be integrated with quantitative variables such as wait-time between speakers, speaking time of teachers and students, and directions of communication exchange. Come learn how these software tools can assist data exploration through visual displays and quantitative analysis.

Screen Capture Technology Reveals Writing Processes as One Modality of Thinking

Sungwoo Kim Pennsylvania State University

Recent developments in screen capture technology have made it possible to trace writers’ real-time performances, contributing to the revelation of the microgenesis of writing (Smith, 2008; Lei, 2008). The current paper aims to expand this methodological innovation to a detailed analysis of one Korean graduate student’s writing/thinking processes. To this effect, it proposes a three-tier convention for transcribing real-time capture data for writing, arguing that the screen capture methodology, when coupled with stimulated recall, can enrich our understanding of writers’ writing/thinking processes, further contributing insights to intervention in pedagogical practices.

Language Use and Developmental Trajectories in Online Game Play and Instant Messaging
Steven Thorne Penn State
Aziz Yuldashev Penn State
Julieta Fernandez Penn State
This presentation reports on massively multiplayer online gaming and instant messaging use in second and foreign language contexts. The presenters employ usage-based and language socialization theories of language acquisition to examine learner developmental trajectories and socialization patterns in out-of-class IM chats among learners of Spanish, and online gaming chats among ESL learners. We then discuss the utility of several language analysis tools and methodologies for tracking changes in language development over time.

Use of Mobile Phones for Spoken Language Learning: Australian and Irish Case Studies

Jesse Markow Learnosity

Tasked by the Australian and Irish governments to deliver language learning to a whole nation of students, we needed something that would work on a huge scale with little or no resources. There was some technology that every student had and was built for speaking and listening: the mobile phone. This session outlines the results of a number of large scale pilot projects with the Australian and Irish governments in the teaching and assessment of spoken language skills using mobile phones. This novel approach to teaching shows great improvements in language skills after short periods of time.

9:00 – 9:45

Using iPods, Television, and Advance Organizers for Increased Listening Performance and Cultural Learning in the Foreign Language Classroom
Kelly Frances Davidson Clemson University
Authentic videos aid learners in developing communicative competency by providing multi-modal input illustrating realistic communication; however, questions remain regarding their implementation. This presentation examines video use through the results of an empirical study and concrete implementation suggestions with television and iPods. The study explored the use of authentic television clips as advance organizers to curriculum videos and their effects on listening performance and the retention of cultural information. Although initial findings indicated no statistically significant differences for either area, qualitative analyses revealed that factors such as preferences and perceptions of increased interest and cognitive overload played an important role.
Task-based Curriculum Development in a Hybrid Chinese Class
Stephen L. Tschudi University of Hawai’i at Manoa
This session brings principles of task-based language teaching (TBLT) into the CALL context, presenting processes and outcomes from a project to develop task-based curriculum in a hybrid web-based university-level class focused on listening and speaking skills in Mandarin Chinese. In this project, language teachers, under constraints on time and resources, embarked on TBLT curriculum development by beginning with one thematic unit — directions and transportation — following principled task-based curriculum design phases informed by Long and Crookes (1993) and Long and Norris (2000). Unit-based development made the workload manageable and provided important experimental space for the instructors to best align task-based principles with online language instruction.
A Model of Faculty Outreach
Claire Bradin Siskin Excelsior College
Suzan Stamper Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis
The CALL Interest Section (CALL-IS) of the Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) has a 25-year history of faculty outreach to TESOL members, and it has developed a model which might well be emulated by other professional organizations. The purpose of this session will be to inform CALICO members of the activities of this dynamic group and offer suggestions as to how similar outreach initiatives might be carried out in other venues.
Systemic Functional Linguistics, Computer Mediated Communication, and L2 Academic Literacy Development
Meg Gebhard University of Massachusetts
Dong shin Shin SUNY Brockport
This study analyzes how a second-grade teacher used genre-based pedagogy to design a blog to support L2 academic literacy over an academic year. Using SFL and ethnographic methods, this study analyzes how blogging practices expanded ELLs’ use of genre/register features while simultaneously developing symbolic competence in online and face-to-face interactions.

Designing, Implementing, and Administering a Virtual Dual Immersion Program via SCMC throughout Your Department

Colleen Coffey Marquette University

The innovation and popularity of new social software tools make global learning partnerships via CMC an effective complement to our language curriculum. Virtual dual immersion via SCMC can accelerate acquisition, increase oral proficiency, motivate learners, and facilitate authentic intercultural exploration. This session discusses the benefits and challenges to developing a virtual immersion program as an integral part of language course curriculum department-wide. (Grew from 38 to 560 learners in five languages). Structure, Communication, Organization, Curriculum, Evaluation, and Assessment will be core components presented.

Collaboration and Negotiation: L2 Pragmatic Development across Multiuser Virtual Environments (MUVEs)

Julie Sykes University of New Mexico

With the intention of giving learners access to the critical L2 pragmatic skills they need, this project examines how both massively multiplayer online games (MMOGs) and synthetic immersive environments (SIEs) contribute to L2 pragmatic development. This presentation will report on a study analyzing learner data from the MMOG, World of Warcraft, as well as the first SIE for learning Spanish pragmatics, Croquelandia. Results suggest that both MMOGs and SIEs are important and relevant to meaningful L2 pragmatic development; however, utilizing both, in conjunction with one another, provides the most comprehensive experience. Implications for future research and pedagogy will be discussed.

Blended Learning in an Advanced ESL Listening Course
Phil Hubbard Stanford University
Kenneth Romeo Stanford University
We present an action research study on a blended learning model for an advanced ESL listening class. In the previous model for this course, significant class time was devoted to learner training in the selection and effective use of listening materials. This year, the course has a formal blended learning structure, cutting class hours in half and increasing independent study time, while continuing with a strong learner training component. Data from individual meetings and weekly student reports show an initial favorable response. We provide additional qualitative results based on student reflections and patterns of use along with lessons learned.

10:00 – 10:45

Reinventing the Language Lab: Lessons Learned
Jeff Magoto University of Oregon
Norman Kerr Chinese Culture University
This presentation will introduce the latest version of the University of Oregon’s freely available A National Virtual Language Lab (ANVILL), which is a suite of web applications built with Drupal and Flash designed to provide: 1) language students at all levels with state-of-the-art speech technology, 2) language teachers with creative ways of implementing tasks which facilitate meaningful foreign language practice. During this presentation focus is on ANVILL’s newest tools for course and assessment building, including Tcasting, which lets teachers record and embed media anywhere within a lesson.
Evaluating the Blended Tuition Strategy for an Open and Distance Learning Language Course
Fernando Rosell-Aguilar The Open University
Anna Comas-Quinn Open University
This paper will present the strategy for the implementation of a blended tuition approach to teaching an intermediate Open and Distance Learning (ODL) Spanish language course at the UK Open University (OU) using a combination of face-to-face, synchronous oral conferencing, and the tools afforded by a new Virtual Learning Environment (VLE). It will also present data collected about how students taking the course used the different tools afforded to them and what their perceptions of their use was. This strategy is based on the theoretical underpinning of ODL and use of learning technologies literature as well as Second Language Acquisition (SLA) theories.
Patterns of Vague Language Use in Synchronous Computer-Mediated Communication
Julieta Fernandez The Pennsylvania State University
Aziz Yuldashev Penn State
This presentation shows the results of a study on vague formulaic sequence use by native and non-native speakers of English in one-on-one synchronous computer-mediated communication (CMC). The presenters also focus on the pedagogical significance of sensitizing L2 learners to the interactional value of vague formulaic sequences in CMC contexts, their key contribution to intersubjectivity and their potential for conveying personal and cultural information on many levels of meaning-making.

Virtual Worlds: Taking the Broad (Virtual) Perspective

Randall Sadler University of Illinois@Urbana-Champaign

While there is an increasing amount of research into the pedagogical applications of Virtual Worlds, the vast majority of the research presented on the topic at conferences like CALICO has focused on Second Life. This presentation will provide a broader perspective on VWs (e.g., SL, Active Worlds, There, Club Penguin, WoW, etc.) and discuss the strengths, weakness, and dangers of each. Attendees will also be given the URL to a Wiki created on this topic where they will be able to access the information from the presentation and add their own thoughts and materials on any of these VWs.

Moving a CALL Application to the Web

Devin Asay Brigham Young University

For many years educational software developers have been using products like HyperCard, Toolbook, or Revolution to create custom instructional applications for the desktop. But to move these applications to the web required learning a complicated new programming environment or making compromises in features or presentation quality to accommodate the more restrictive and complex web browser environment.Now, Runtime Revolution has released a free development tool and web plugin that allows Revolution developers to easily move their desktop applications to the web browser. The presenter will show CALL software that he originally deployed on the desktop then moved to the web.

Interaction, Modality and L2 Development: Comparing the Effectiveness of Computer-generated and Face to Face Recasts

Ken Petersen American Councils

This paper describes research on the effectiveness of recasts in SLA, comparing recasts delivered by a virtual interlocutor (powered by an ICALL system) with those delivered by human face-to-face interlocutors. Results show that recasts in both modalities are equally effective at promoting L2 learning, pointing to important implications for CALL, language teaching, and SLA research. A thorough description of the ICALL system built for this study will also be provided.

11:00 – 11:20

Reexamining the Effectiveness of Vocabulary Learning via Mobile Phone: A Chinese Students’ Perspective
Haisen Zhang University of International Business and Economics
The purpose of this study was to reexamine the effectiveness of vocabulary learning via mobile phone. The students from two intact classes of sophomore students (N=78) at a Chinese university participated in an experiment on the use of mobile phone SMS text messages in vocabulary learning. Results show that there is a significant difference in the posttests (p<.05) but not in the delayed tests between the two groups (p>.05). The paper concludes that vocabulary learning through these two methods is effective in their own way. Finally, the limitations of this study and suggestions for future studies are discussed.

Correcting Errors Produced by French Speakers Writing in English: The Case of Misplaced Adverbs

Marie Garnier

The CorrecTools project aims at designing an innovative correction system targeted at French speakers producing documents in English. In this paper, we present a method for correcting errors linked to misplaced adverbs. We analyze the distribution of such errors and their types, and explore their psycholinguistic causes in order to improve correction propositions. We examine and take into consideration the numerous and subtle parameters at stake in the correction of misplaced adverbs, i.e. syntactic, lexical and pragmatic constraints as well as micro-planning issues. Correction rules are designed on the basis of annotated errors and are implemented using the TextCoop platform.

Textual Representations of Oral Discourse Practices: A Computer Mediated Discourse Analysis Approach

Andy Halvorsen

This presentation will draw on work from the emergent field of computer mediated discourse analysis (CMDA) to analyze asynchronous text-based interactions of ESL students that parallel and support classroom work. The primary focus of the presentation will be an analysis of the way in which participants in asynchronous online discussions attempt textual representations of oral discourse practices. The central thesis will be the claim that computer mediated discourse is a hybridized and rapidly evolving genre with features making it unique from both written and oral discourse.

Disagreeing and Agreeing in Wikipedia Metadiscussion: An Examination of the Intelligent Design “Talk” Pages

Ryan Dotson Ohio University

At first glance Wikipedia seems like little more than an online encyclopedia. Most realize that it is user-generated, but perhaps few understand how, in some cases, the information presented on the encyclopedia page is determined. Tucked back, just barely behind the scenes, users are negotiating and hashing out what information each of them feels should be presented on the Wikipedia article page. This study takes this metadiscussion, for one particularly controversial article, and examines how the interlocutors agree and disagree as they work to create the beloved, and reviled, “free encyclopedia”.

Digital Acculturation within Multicultural Online Learning Communities: Interactions and Perspectives

Wendy Chambers University of Calgary

This presentation reports on a research study that aims to develop a framework for understanding the evolution of communicative presence and its effect on individuals’ sense of acculturation within multicultural online learning communities. Four online professional development courses offered by a globally recognized teaching association were investigated. Data sources for triangulation were an e-survey, text-based threaded discussion forum postings, focus groups and interviews with learners, and an interview with the instructor. The presenter will highlight the major findings and discuss the emergent framework for understanding the complexities and influence of language and culture on the evolution of communicative presence.

11:30 – 11:50

Instructor’s Role in Virtual-Constructed Environments
Stella K. Hadjistassou Department of English Arizona State University
This study examines instructors’ roles as native speakers and English as a Second Language(ESL) learners navigate through IBM’s Green Data Center to discuss some of IBM’s practices in promoting energy efficiency. Students enrolled in two sections of a course in Technical Communication in a southwestern metropolitan institution were asked to participate in this study in order to examine IBM’s business practices in energy conservation. Students were given specific tasks that needed to be completed, while an instructor in electrical engineering had agreed to address any questions that students might raise in the process.

Dynamically Assessing Written Language: To What Extent do Learners of French Language Accept Mediation?

Sylvie Thouesny Dublin City University

The key difference between standardized and dynamic assessment lies in the fact that, in the latter, an expert is allowed to provide assistance to a novice during the assessment process. Whilst an approach to dynamic assessment implies the mediator’s participation, it is equally important to note the involvement of the learner during the activity. Starting from a sociocultural perspective, this paper explores the extent to which mediation is accepted by second language learners of French, when correcting their written essays. More specifically, it investigates how learners respond to interventions, from implicit to explicit, and how they negotiate mediation in terms of acceptance and refusal.

An Examination of Processing Instruction, Structured Input, and Computerized Visual Input Enhancement for the Acquisition of the Subjunctive by Distance Learners of Spanish

Victoria Russell University of South Florida

The present study investigated the effects of processing instruction (PI) on the acquisition of the subjunctive by 92 distance learners of Spanish. Structured input (SI) was combined with computerized visual input enhancement (VIE) to increase the salience of targeted grammatical forms for web-based delivery. VIE was operationalized as word animation of subjunctive forms through flash programming language. The results of the experiment indicate that for interpretation and production tasks, there were no significant differences between PI and traditional instruction. However, learners who received PI combined with VIE outperformed learners who received SI without VIE for interpretation tasks.

Using a Wiki to Teach Teachers Grammar

Mark Shea Michigan State University

This study reports on a practitioner-research project investigating the implementation of a wiki during a semester-long pedagogical grammar course taught for undergraduate Education majors at a large Midwestern university. During the early weeks of the semester, short assignments familiarized the class with wikis. During the second half of the semester, students worked in small groups to customize the grammar pages. Students also created content-based lesson plans which were linked to relevant grammar sections of the wiki and provided feedback on each other’s work. Data from student work and interviews suggest that the incorporation of the wiki was a beneficial addition to the course.

Web 2.0: When Authentic Materials Become too Authentic

Adolfo Carrillo Cabello Iowa State University

Authentic multimedia materials readily available in collaborative websites pose challenges for their inclusion in course materials for the teaching of culture. These types of materials provide cultural representations of day-to-day practices, which differ from iconic representations of cultural images found in language textbooks. However, the meanings conveyed, and the lack of standards for appropriateness make the selection process difficult. Furthermore, filtering media materials from authentic sources greatly impacts the culture portrayed in a course. This presentation illustrates difficulties encountered in selecting images from authentic sources for inclusion in a hybrid course, and will discuss strategies to overcome these challenges.

Digital Video Making and L2 Vocabulary Learning

Dana Monsein University of Massachusetts Amherst

This presentation will discuss the effect that a digital video making project has on the acquisition of L2 vocabulary. While many FL educators would agree that video making can improve morale and motivation in the L2 classroom, little research has been done regarding its relationship to L2 acquisition. This study investigates if participation in a collaborative, task-based video making project is an effective way to learn L2 lexical items. Vocabulary learning outcomes and pedagogical implications will be discussed, as will the steps, and some of the challenges, regarding the implementation of video making into the L2 curriculum.

“Archive on!” A Look at Learner Autonomy and Interaction in Chatting Online When the Instructor is Not Present
Kelly Christine Bilinski UC Davis, Spanish
Maria Cetto UC Davis
This study analyzes the chat records for forty-five participants enrolled in a hybrid course and looks at the value of learner autonomy and interaction in the chatting environment when the instructor is not present. Participants met online weekly for thirty minutes using the Wimba Classroom, a tri-modal chat program that has an archiving tool. The study shows that scaffolding between two non-native speakers does occur and that this type of learning environment creates a rich opportunity for learner autonomy. Results will highlight chat archives, participant responses from a questionnaire, follow-up interviews, and overall observations by the instructor.

1:30 – 2:15

An Online Oral Production System and its Application in a Blended Learning Environment
Terumi Miyazoe Tokyo Denki University
Paul Daniels Kochi University of Technology
This presentation reports the results of a pilot study of implementing oral production modules developed for a course management system (CMS). The study addresses the challenge of fostering oral fluency in an EFL setting by examining the learning outcomes of implementing the online modules. The system was implemented in oral English classes with university students in Japan (n = 120) in a blended course that integrated weekly face-to-face meetings with oral production assignments. Both qualitative and quantitative data were analyzed to determine if the implementation of the online oral assignments improved learner confidence and/or the amounts of oral language production.
Virtual Collaboration across Continents, Who Benefit More?
Rui Cheng Nazareth College
This presentation discusses a computer-mediated collaboration model between Chinese EFL students in China and TESOL students in the US. The model provides opportunities for them to communicate through various types of synchronous and asynchronous technology and achieve their different purposes. Chinese EFL students made progress in their English proficiency and TESOL students in the US gained the experience with EFL students, culture and setting. Both group claimed enhanced comfort level of using computer technology. The presenter describes the design, delivery and significance of the model and the implications for classroom instruction.
An Online Verb-based Syllabus for Computer Science
Steven Tripp University of Aizu
This paper describes the construction of a syllabus and a website based on verbs frequently used in computer science papers. This project began by extracting verbs from the General Service List and the Academic Word List. To these were added the top 1000 verbs in Davies COCA (academic only). Independently, verbs were extracted and ranked from a collection of computer science abstracts. After redundancies were eliminated, a total of 3315 verb senses (meanings) were isolated by collating the list with the Wordnet verb data. This list was stratified, linked to  definitions and other on-line resources, and converted into 144 webpages.
A Different Kind of Blending
Senta Goertler Michigan State University
Theresa Schenker Michigan State University
Unlike many blending projects, the driving force of this curricular revision was not a logistical concern, but rather a pedagogical. There was no reduction of teaching staff or increase in class size. The changes in this “Advanced German” course were motivated by the course theme (traditional and social media) and course goal (language development, transcultural competence, and effective citizenship). To evaluate the effectiveness of the curricular changes in response to the course and university goals, students’ participation, production, and comments were analyzed. Results and implications will be discussed in this presentation.
Collaborative Instructional Processes in Language Technology
Christopher Jones Carnegie Mellon University
Marc Neil Siskin Carnegie Mellon University
Ryan Miller Carnegie Mellon University
Rosa Bahamondes Carnegie Mellon University
In the Fall of 2009, the graduate program in Second Language Acquisition at Carnegie Mellon offered a course in Language Acquisition and Technology. Using Robert Blake’s “Brave New Digital Classroom” and Lomicka and Lord’s “Next Generation: Social Networking and Online Collaboration in Foreign Language Learning” as primary reading sources, the course was conceived as a collaborative venture combining media, CALL and Web 2.0 technologies in a process-oriented sequence. Students were asked to take ownership of a technology for training and mentoring classmates, as well as reflecting on the nature of their experience as it progressed. The student / instructor roles where thus fluid within the class framework. This presentation draws from blogs, forums, project examples and personal testimony from instructor, technical assistant and students as they examine what it means to continually confront the evolving technology-scape for those involved in language teaching and learning.
Intercultural Foreign Language Learning through International Web Collaboration in Moodle
Claudia Warth University of Tubingen
This paper explores web collaboration activities for developing intercultural communication strategies in English as a foreign language. Studies on foreign language skills needed to succeed interculturally remain uncommon, as do such on intercultural online discourse. The presentation reports on the European project icEurope where virtual European teams (secondary students) collaborate online to solve intercultural tasks. An intercultural discourse analysis of the students’ language will be presented. Results are compared to linguistic means and strategies believed to be necessary for successful intercultural communication. Based on this, implications for activity design and intercultural foreign language learning through web collaboration will be presented.

2:30 – 3:15

The BBC Learning English Blog: A Corpus Study of Blog as a Medium for Language Learning

Nurenzia Yannuar Ohio University

This study examines the implementation of blogs in order to promote autonomous learning of English. The BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) has established a blog in which both teachers and learners can interact through their entries and comments, resulting in a large corpus data of written short essays in English. Focusing on how learners make use of blogs as a medium of writing in English as a second or foreign language, the present study will attempt to illustrate the topic of the entries and the nature of feedback received by student bloggers from teachers and readers.
Foreign Language Learners’ Public and Private Voices in Multimedia and Virtual Environments
Aurore Mroz University of Iowa
This presentation discusses a pilot study that employs a newly designed, constructivist, two-component research instrument intended to explore the emergence of new forms of learner discourse. The study focused on learners’ approaches to multimodal texts situated in both multimedia and virtual environments. Naturally occurring data of learners’ communications and interactions revealed a distinctive yet complementary use of a French private voice in the learners’ Multimedia Notebook and of a French public voice in the virtual platform. These voices allow them to recount their social and inner meaning-making of multimodal French texts, as well as their hypotheses-generating processes in the target language.
Pragmatic Development in Intercultural NS/NNS SCMC
Adrienne Gonzales University of New Mexico
Studies have shown that SCMC can improve oral and pragmaticskills of language learners. This presentation will discuss leavetakings between native speakers of Spanish and Spanish languagelearners in Livemocha, a natural, participatory, user-driven onlineenvironment. This presentation will address learners’ leavetaking strategies and the evolution of these strategies over time, as wellas the learners’ perceptions of this online community and the effect of these perceptions on their interactions. This presentation will alsoaddress native speaker influence on learner language use. Finally,this presentation will discuss the implications of this technology forclassroom language learning.
Blending an Intercultural Exchange with Explicit Grammar/Vocabulary Teaching
Tamao Araki, Miyazaki Prefectural Nursing University
This paper addresses the issue of what kind of language learning can be targeted by blending an online intercultural exchangeand in-class explicit language instruction. The participants are 96Japanese students at a nursing university who participated in aninternational online exchange using Moodle. Half of them also receivedexplicit language teaching in class sessions. The results ofthe questionnaire after the exchange and fluency/accuracy testsbefore and after the exchange indicate that formulaic phrases andless formulaic phrases would need to be approached differently to be successfully learned in such an educational program.
 Measuring the Usability of a Learner’s Electronic Dictionary:An Experimental Study
Marie-Josée Hamel, Université d’Ottawa
I will report on an experimental study which has taken place in the context of the development of an electronic dictionary for advancedlearners of French (H, 2008; H & M, 2007). The aim of the studywas twofold: (a) to observe empirically the “learner-task-dictionary” interaction (Tono, 2000; Thumb, 2004) and (b) to measure aspectsof the usability of a prototype in development using innovative technologyand techniques (Nogier, 2001). The experiment involved 10 learners of French asked to complete some microtasks with theprototype. The process of the interaction was captured and analyzed.The results provide an insight onto the learners’ search/lookupstrategies. They indicate a fairly positive learner-task-dictionaryinteraction. They highlight aspects of the prototype’s content and interface which deserve further design attention.
Using Technology to Meet the Needs of At-Risk Students and Students With Learning Disabilities in the Foreign Language Classroom
Eve Leons, Landmark College
Computer-based practice is ideally suited to students with learning disabilities in a number of ways. They benefit from rapid feedback,the ability to self-pace, and increased opportunity to practice language in ways that are structured and multimodal. Students withlearning disabilities especially need ways in which they can study more efficiently and have access to the sounds of the language outside of class time.