Conference Presentations Day Three
8:00am – 9:30am
Customizing Moodle for Language Learning
Carly Born, Carleton College
Claire Bradin Siskin, Excelsior College
Scott Brill, University of Arizona
Lisa Frumkes, Apex Learning
Jeff Nelson, Washington State University
Thomas Robb, Kyoto Sangyo University
Many CALL specialists are attracted to the open-source Learning Management System (LMS) known as Moodle, or Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment. Designed to facilitate collaboration, Moodle offers flexibility as well as the possibility of incorporating multimedia. The panel members, all expert practitioners of Moodle, will describe and demonstrate the ways in which they have been able to customize Moodle to achieve their pedagogical goals. A web page with links to resources for using Moodle in language learning will be provided. This session is sponsored by the Courseware Special Interest Group.
|link to handout|
8:00am – 8:45am
Challenges Facing Mobile Language Learning: The Way Forward
Jack Burston, University of Cyprus
This paper focuses on the exploitation of mobile phone technology for the learning of foreign languages. It begins by considering the obstacles facing the effective use of mobile phone technology for language learning. In doing so, the paper describes four challenges that have to be overcome for mobile phone technology to become an effective pedagogical tool: 1) intrusiveness, 2) cost, 3) practical technological constraints, and 4) pedagogical methodologies. Having defined the issues that need to be addressed, the paper then proceeds to describe how these challenges have been met in the design of MobLang, an EU funded Lifelong Learning project.
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Culture Learning and Language Development in Mediated Learning Communities: Lessons for the Foreign Language Classroom
Sebastien Dubreil, University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Based on observation data in international online telecollaborative foreign language (FL) learning environments, I examine how CALL research can in turn inform FL classroom practices. Given the observed effectiveness of these mediated learning communities to foster interpersonal connections, (trans)cultural learning, and (second) language development, I argue that the affordances provided by various technological tools have led FL educators to deploy new pedagogical practices anchored in the notion of (international) communities of learners, fostering inquiry and problem-solving skills to achieve desirable outcomes (e.g., language and culture learning, epistemological humility). I conclude that these results can shape effective praxis for the face-to-face classroom.
A Different Way to Teach Languages: MIL Online Courses for Teaching Languages in Context
Aline Germain-Rutherford, University of Ottawa
Dr. Joseph B. South Middlebury Interactive Languages
Ana Martinez-Lage, Middlebury College
Ana Maria Preto-Bay, Brigham Young University
Michael Geisler, Middlebury College
This presentation describes online learning environments for French and Spanish Level 1, developed by a team of academics, language teachers and professionals from the private sector online education. Each language-learning environment includes three interrelated, interactive and inter-referential components, which also function autonomously: a core course, a collaborative virtual space for students to perform tasks while interacting with peers and native speakers, and a 3D immersive environment. Examples taken from the two courses and learning environments will demonstrate the underlying pedagogical principles. A preliminary evaluation of the courses, currently being piloted in New York City high schools, will be discussed.
The Examination of Interlanguage Writing Development through the Use of Long-term L2 Blog Corpora
Maki Hirotani, Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology
The researcher will examine interlanguage writing development using L2 blog data collected from second-year college learners of Japanese over a five-year period. Using the L2 corpora, she will examine the development of language complexity, including lexical and syntactic complexity, using quantitative methods. Regarding syntactic complexity, she will look at a variety of lexical and grammar forms, phrasal complexity, overall complexity, as well as complexity by subordination. The researcher will also present a qualitative case study for a closer examination of interlanguage development.
Complexity in Asynchronous CMC Agreement and Disagreement
Greg Kessler, Ohio University
This study reports on agreement and disagreement in asynchronous CMC in an online course, utilizing a multi-dimensional examination of complexity (Norris and Ortega, 2009). Results indicate that disagreement was more syntactically and lexically complex, particularly indirect disagreement. Students are also much more likely to agree than disagree. They also tend to interact in polite ways that suggest a potentially superficial engagement with the material and cohort, often ignoring previous posts as they added their own similar or redundant information. When disagreeing, students were more likely to be indirect. Implications for designing and managing online asynchronous CMC discussions are discussed.
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Alternative Instructional Models to Reach Proficiency Goals: Case Studies Using TELL ME MORE and TalkAbroad
Angelika Kraemer, Michigan State University
Many university language programs are researching alternative models of language instruction to maintain and grow programs and to help students reach proficiency goals for future employment. This presentation discusses three case studies that utilized Auralog’s TELL ME MORE software in conjunction with other CALL technologies to help students maintain and advance language knowledge: (1) a 3rd semester Spanish self-study, (2) a supplemental component in a 4th semester German course, and (3) an accelerated language option for advanced learners. Data were collected via surveys and interviews. Results indicate increases in proficiency and positive perceptions of the technologies. Implications for the use and implementation of CALL materials will be discussed.
9:00am – 9:45am
Technology Use and Potential for CALL among Azerbaijani University Students
Effective use of CALL requires instructors to use available technology well. What does that mean in an Azerbaijani context in the capital city? This exploratory study surveyed a majority female sample of 48 English students regarding their access to and use of technology. The results indicated that despite the instructors’ initial perceptions, many students used and had access to various forms of technology on a regular basis; there are more opportunities for CALL than previously anticipated.
Additional Resources in Both Self-access Learning and Self-assessment Online Preparatory Materials for Official English Examinations
This paper explores the development of different additional resources and learning objects of a course and assessment program for language learning created and implemented through two platforms: InGenio, an online authoring tool and content manager, and Paulex, developed for language assessment via Internet. In order to provide the students at Universidad Politécnica de Valencia (UPV) with opportunities for a better preparation for the Cambridge Computer-based First Certificate in English (CBFCE) while helping them to familiarize themselves with its new format, the CAMILLE Research group is developing FCE Online Course and Tester together with additional digital resources to be shared with university students, professors and researchers worldwide thanks to the agreement that UPV signed with the OpenCourseWare (OCW) Consortium.
Designing and Implementing Tasks in a Virtual Learning Environment
Regine Hampel, The Open University
Online tools such as forums, wikis and blogs lend themselves to negotiation of meaning and co-construction of knowledge amongst learners. However, task design is crucial to motivate and support learners, foster interaction, and make best use of the possibilities of complex virtual learning environments. This presentation charts the use of online tasks in a distance language course over the period of two years. It reports on the results of an evaluation carried out in the first year, highlighting achievements as well as challenges, and examines the changes introduced in year 2 and their impact in terms of participation and interaction.
Japanese Performance in Text-Chat and Spoken Discourse
This study compares the complexity of adult Japanese language learner output when completing narrative activities in two different communication contexts: face-to-face spoken interaction and synchronous CMC (text-chat). L2 performance was evaluated in terms of lexical diversity and syntactic complexity. Stimulated recall sessions were used to generate a framework describing learner strategies used during text-chat interaction that may have influenced differences in language complexity found between text-chat and spoken discourse.
Four Learning Objectives to Guide Podcast Design
Claudia Fernandez, Knox College
This presentation will address podcast production as L2 instructional materials developed by instructors. When used as listening tools, podcasts can help accomplish at least four main learning objectives. The presentation will address aspects of L2 acquisition and teaching to be considered in order to create well-informed podcasts with the four objectives proposed.
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10:00am – 10:45am
Secondary Student Perceptions of Using Digital Recordings to Measure Oral Proficiency: A Quasi-Experimental Approach
Peter B Swanson, Georgia State University
Promoting student engagement in the second language classroom continues to challenge second language teachers. Manifold obstacles such the affective barriers as well as perceptions of irrelevance of authentic language applications can impede student oral language performance. This session focuses on measuring secondary students’ perceptions of using free and open source software for the assessment of speaking proficiency using a quasi-experimental research approach. Changes in perceptions from pretest and post-test are discussed and the findings are juxtaposed earlier studies at different levels. This research has implications for integrating best practices in the measurement of oral language proficiency in the second language classroom.
The Many Faces of CMC — A CMC SIG Presentation
Drawing on expertise from members of the CALICO CMC Special Interest Group, this presentation will focus on practical strategies for utilizing CMC in the language classroom. Presenters will discuss the various types of CMC tools available and ways in which they might be used to enhance second language learning. Participants in the session are encouraged to ask questions and engage in the discussion around the possibilities of CMC. Sponsored by the CMC SIG.
Assessing Oral Performance: Computer-Based Tests for Beginning Learners
Marta Tecedor Cabrero, University of Iowa
This presentation presents a mixed-methods study comparing the language elicited by two types of computer-based oral exams. Twenty-four beginning learners of Spanish completed the oral exam’s direct or indirect version. Both versions contained a monologic and a dialogic task designed using Bachman and Palmer’s (1996) Communicative Language Ability model. The direct version was delivered using Elluminate, the indirect version used MySpanishLab. The main guiding questions were: Is there an interaction between degree of task structure and accuracy and fluency of student performance? Are the two tests comparable in terms of lexical density, speech functions and communicative and interactional strategies they elicit?
Preparing for Conversations by Using a Self-study System
We developed a conversation practice system that saves classroom time in two ways: (a) learners come prepared to class, and (b) drills and tests can be administered concurrently. The system asks the learner to speak questions or responses in simulated dialogues. Although the system does not understand the learner’s speech, designing realistic dialogues is not difficult because the system can ask specific questions or give open-ended responses. Learners can be forced to respond immediately, or be allowed to pause and repeat the dialogue. Our learners come to class having practiced their phrases at home. Conversation exams end quickly because learners talk at once.
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Bridging Interactionist SLA and AWE to Enhance L2 Writing
Elena Cotos Iowa State University
This paper presents an empirical evaluation that bridges SLA and AWE by focusing on interactionist tenets to investigate the potential of automated feedback for L2 writing. A mixed-methods approach with a concurrent transformative strategy was employed. Quantitative data (survey responses; automated and human scores for student drafts; pre-/post test scores) and qualitative data (student drafts; think-aloud protocols; computer screen capturing; observations; interviews) yielded findings indicating that automated color-coded and numerical feedback possesses language learning potential. This claim was supported by evidence of focus on discourse form, noticing of negative evidence, improved rhetorical quality of the written output, and increased learning gains.
Customizable Streaming Video Playback: YouTube Your Way
Harold Hendricks, Brigham Young University
Streaming video services have unleashed a flood of authentic language content, easily accessible by anyone, at anytime, for any instructional purpose. Video is inherently linear, but language teaching and learning is not. With a player that is able to customize the viewing experience, the instructor can tailor the video to the instruction. This presentation will demonstrate an HTML5 player that customizes streaming episodes of “Yo soy Betty, la fea,” for intermediate Spanish classes, providing random access, skipping, annotations, muting and blanking under playlist control.
Jumping on the Social Media Bandwagon: Practice and Outcomes of Social Community Among Language Learners and Teachers
11:00am – 11:20am
The Social Media and Language Learning Research Portal: Bringing Research and Practice Together
The Language Acquisition Resource Center (LARC) at San Diego State University has developed a prototype online tool, called the Social Media and Language Learning Portal, which will gather research, materials, lesson plans, and experiences of social media in the foreign language classroom into one location, and the people who are going to build this network are you. This presentation involves: 1) a need to bring together research, materials, and users of social media for language learning 2) presenting an overview of the Social Media and Language Learning Portal 3) discussing future collaborative functions 4) a call for participation.
Do Online and Face-to-face Assessment Tasks Provide Complementary Information about Oral Achievement?
Susanne Rott, University of Illinois
The current investigation explored the effect of an on-line as well as two face-to-face oral tests on student L2 speaking abilities. Speaking abilities were assessed based on Robinson’s (2001) task framework comparing length of utterance, linguistic complexity, use of discourse specific and formulaic expressions, as well as accuracy (verb endings, tense markers, word order). Additionally, the study assessed learner self-perception to be able to demonstrate adequately their strengths in the respective test format. While learners felt least successful in the online test, the online format allowed them to best demonstrate their speaking abilities.
The Role of Language Technology Professionals Beyond the Foreign Language Curriculum
Cindy Evans, Skidmore College
The perceived role of foreign languages in the curriculum is undergoing a significant transformation in academia. The 2007 MLA Report called for a reexamination of our priorities and curriculum. Among suggestions for future directions, the report advocated for such programs as Languages Across the Curriculum to expand the focus of language study. This session presents ongoing work in the Cultures and Languages Across the Curriculum (CLAC) Consortium to integrate language study with other domains outside of the the traditional language curriculum. The presentation will offer an overview of LAC models and demonstrate technology tools used to support a LAC program.
Flax-Reader — iCALL Web-Application for Individualised L2 Extensive Reading and Vocabulary Study
Michael Walmsley, University of Waikato, New Zealand
This presentation will demonstrate Flax-Reader, an engaging web-application that aids learners of any ability–from novice to near native speaker–in learning any L2–from Spanish to Swahili. Flax-Reader assists learners in locating interesting and level appropriate L1 and L2 articles from newspapers, blogs, encyclopedias, etc. on the Internet. L1 articles are automatically transformed into mixed-language texts (A.K.A. diglot readers) that are tailored to match the ability of individual learners. L2 articles are automatically enhanced with context-sensitive glosses. Flax-Reader keeps track of learner reading and gloss access, and provides motivating feedback of their L2 learning progress.
Playing by Ear: Building Listening Comprehension Skills through Games and Synthetic Immersive Environments
This presentation will explore the possibility of replicating the benefits of study abroad experiences through emerging digital technologies. Drawing upon current research in L2 listening comprehension as well as research on the design of digital game-based learning, the aim of this project is to evaluate the use of Synthetic Immersive Environments as a pedagogical tool aimed at improving listening comprehension abilities in L2 learners. The presentation of this project will conclude with a discussion of suggested guidelines for the design of Synthetic Immersive Environments for this purpose as well as the possible future implications for second language instruction.
|presentation slides (pdf)||Prezi link|
A Cross-Cultural Study on EFL Learner Perception of Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL)
While mobile devices are gradually playing an important role to students, learning English on mobile phones is no longer a novelty for EFL learners. This paper aimed to investigate end-user perception of mobile assisted language learning through cross-cultural analyses. Forty-five participants (N=45) from seven different countries/regions voluntarily took part in this project. The cross-cultural analyses were conducted with constructs of technological affordances, applicability, and the constructivism of the MALL. Results of ANOVA and Duncan Multiple Comparison revealed significant differences did exist among participants. Even so, all participants agreed that MALL is a potential tool for constructivism of EFL learning.
The Role of Collaboration in Developing L2 Vocabulary Knowledge through Computer-assisted LanguageQuests
Sarah R Huffman, Iowa State University
This study investigates how participation in online collaborative learning environments impacts ESL student understanding of and ability to use target vocabulary appropriately in context. Two treatment groups comprised of 24 advanced level ESL students completed an online, vocabulary-centered LanguageQuest either alone or with a partner. Pre-task and post-task surveys were given to participants to gauge each treatment group’s growth in vocabulary knowledge. Findings reveal that the collaborative-learning treatment group reported a significantly higher increase in vocabulary knowledge over the individual-learning treatment group. Further research on the effect of collaboration on vocabulary learning in computer-mediated environments is needed.
11:30am – 11:50am
Effect of Audio vs. Video on Aural Discrimination of Vowels
Shannon McCrocklin, Iowa State University
Despite the growing use of media in the classroom, one critical aspect of digital instruction has been largely ignored, the use of audio vs. video in pronunciation teaching. This presentation will give the results of a research study, in which participants (n=61) received either audio training or video training on the vowel contrast /i/-/I/. Aural discrimination improvement was measured with a pretest, post-test, and delayed post-test. This presentation will also give results from a questionnaire used to determine student reactions to the like-ability and use-ability of the training.
Violation of Interactional Norms Created by a Learner of Japanese in Her Online and Offline Environments: Conversation Analysis as an Approach to Synchronous Virtual Classroom Discourse
Satomi Suzuki, Georgia Tech University
This paper documents student out-of-classroom engagement in learning during synchronous online classes. The focal student’s verbal and nonverbal behaviors showed the interactional norms created in her private environment deviated from those found in face-to-face discourse. Using video data, the study finds limited student involvement in online interactions. Importantly, however, the focal student had many opportunities to vocalize her speech privately. The study illustrates the potential of online learning to promote increased learner agency and autonomy.
Content Comprehension of Video and Lecture as Evidenced in Learner Summaries
Franklin Bacheller, Utah State University
ESL learners summarized information presented first through an un-narrated video and then a mini-lecture. Summaries were analyzed for capture and communication of content. Results showed learners had more difficulty summarizing the video than the mini-lecture. One explanation is that learners understood the un-narrated video but had difficulty because the video, unlike the mini-lecture, did not provide language they needed for writing. A follow-up study, in which the mini-lecture was presented before the video, tested this explanation. The presenter will report the results of the second study and discuss implications for courseware development.
Training and Continuing Education of a CALL Designer
Developing effective and engaging computer-assisted language learning (CALL) software is a complex project. It requires knowledge in different fields– language education, instructional design, user interface (UI)/user experience (UX) design, and software engineering. An online instructional designer at a CALL software development company presents her educational and on-the-job training, and shares books and resources that she found inspiring and useful.
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Can Processing Instruction Help Distance Learners Comprehend Authentic Input?
Victoria Russell, Valdosta State University
The present study examined processing instruction (PI), structured input (SI), and computerized visual input enhancement (VIE) with 92 distance language learners who received an authentic input passage following experimental exposure. Thus far, studies in the PI strand have only examined how learners interact with structured, or manipulated, input. The results of the present study indicate that participants who received PI in combination with VIE noticed targeted forms in subsequent authentic input with metalinguistic awareness. Further, learners who were exposed to PI, with and without VIE, were better processors authentic input than learners who received SI without VIE.
Multimedia Instruction and University Student Attitudes toward Second Language Learning: A Mixed-method Study
Jesus Izquierdo, Universidad Juárez Autónoma, Mexico
Daphnée Simard, Université du Québec à Montréal, Canada
Guadalupe Garza, Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco
Isabel Zapata, Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco
In this presentation, we will discuss the results of a mixed-method classroom-based quasi-experimental study that examined the effects of meaning-based grammar multimedia instruction (MI) with or without language awareness tasks on learner attitudes toward the instructional materials, the L2 class, and L2 learning. The role of the stage of L2 grammar development of the learners in the resulting attitudes also will be addressed. The results pointed to positive learner attitudes toward the instructional materials and the L2 class in all conditions. Yet, neither the MI type nor the L2 developmental stage altered learner attitudes toward L2 learning.
1:30pm – 3:00pm
Ensuring Successful Implementation of Telecollaboration: Issues of Design, Management, Maintenance, and Evaluation
Nike Arnold, Portland State University
Dawn Bikowski,Ohio University
Joe Cunningham, University of Kansas
Melinda Dooly, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona
Lara Ducate, University of South Carolina
Victoria Hasko, University of Georgia
Greg Kessler, Ohio University
Sabine Levet, MIT
Randall Sadler, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
The panel brings together experienced foreign/second language (F/SL) telecollaboration researchers as they reflect on how to ensure successful implementation of long distance partnerships. Currently, investigations of the organizational issues associated with telecollaboration project lifecycle are on the outskirts of CALL research. The panelists will argue that such analyses and the fostering of expertise on the topic are critical for normalizing telecollaboration in F/SL curricula. Accordingly, they will share experiences of implementing successful telecollaborative initiatives from planning through evaluation, in glocal (global and local) contexts, with a wide range of pedagogical tasks and goals, and in a variety of mediums of instruction.
1:30pm – 2:15pm
Addressing Cultural and Native Language Interference in Second/Foreign Language Acquisition
Daniele Allard, University of Sherbrooke
This paper addresses the problem of cultural and native language interference in second/foreign language acquisition. More specifically, it examines issues of interference that can be traced to a student’s native language that also have cultural components. An understanding of what actually composes both interference and culture is required. The concepts we identified to this effect result in an ontology that can be interpreted and used both by humans and computers to build interactive learning environments. We used the ontology as a conceptual foundation to build an instructional scenario which is then supported by readily available technological tools. A specific example is described.
|article in special issue of CALICO Journal, Volume 28, #3
Animated Manga for Teaching and Learning Kanji: Resource, Results and Reflections
Visual and narrative mnemonics have long been used as a method of teaching and learning Japanese kanji characters. Heisig’s “imaginative memory” and Rowley’s “pictographix” are recent and well-known examples of this methodology. Smolensky introduces the idea of “Kanjichain” plot mnemonics, and the animated manga (comic book) courseware presented in this session is an extension of that concept. Kanji that students are required to learn are organized into a cohesive narrative and incorporated into an animated manga that students view online. Theory underpinning the development of the courseware, as well as student and instructor reflections will be included in the presentation.
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5 Steps to Media Literacy
Students around the world are bombarded with media every day. With the increased use of technology in language instruction, it is essential that we help students understand not only the content and language focus of a lesson, but also messages that are embedded in and surrounding the tools we ask them to use. This presentation will explore how to begin teaching media literacy by asking key questions. This approach to media literacy allows language learners to develop 21st century skills as they develop language skills. The presentation will include opportunities for participants to engage as teachers and students.
Intercultural Competence through Telecollaboration
Theresa Schenker , Michigan State University
A six-week e-mail project was conducted between a second-level German course at a US university and an advanced English class at a high school in Germany. The goal was to explore e-mails as a possible tool for assessing intercultural competence, and to investigate student interest in cultural learning and changes therein because of the e-mail exchange. The results showed evidence of intercultural competence in the e-mails, but the development thereof could not be traced. The pilot study was revised to enable a measurement of the development of intercultural competence in e-mails as well as longitudinal effects of the exchange. Preliminary results of the new study will also be presented.
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of incorporating computerized graphic organizers (GO) into EFL college students’ reading-writing unified activities. Eighteen students were assessed with two pretests to identify their current level of English proficiency. Then they received 2-week training with computerized GO strategy in reading expository texts. Two posttests were given after the whole treatment. Furthermore, the Group Embedded Figures Test was administered to examine whether different learning styles influence the effectiveness of its implementation. The findings are expected to demonstrate the effectiveness of computerized graphic organizers and the influence of learning styles on their use.
2:30pm – 3:15pm
Corpus-based Discovery Learning in an Advanced L2 Grammar Course
Nina Vyatkina University of Kansas
This paper reports on the design and implementation of a college-level advanced L2 German grammar review course. The course adopted a functional and usage-based approach, with materials including authentic German language corpora. Students engaged in ‘discovery learning’ while browsing a NS corpus in order to discover patterns of use. Focal features included frequency effects and co-occurrence of various lexico-grammatical means of expression in different text types. The paper concludes with recommendations for designing similar usage-based grammar courses, and discussion of implications for integration of corpus-based methodologies in language teaching as well as for promoting learner autonomy.
|presentation slides||references handout|
Assessing ESP Learner Activities in an E-learning Environment
Kazunori Nozawa, Ritsumeikan University
An ESP e-learning environment on Hospitality English using Moodle was created in 2009 after the extensive surveys to find out the needs were carried out in 2008 under financial support from the Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research. From the fall semester of 2009 to the fall semester of 2010, it was used by students at three universities and by employees at a hotel in Osaka, Japan. This paper reports how these learners participated in tasks and how they assessed the program with the analysis results of pre- and post-course tests, online exercises and pre- and post-course questionnaires.
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Integration of web2.0 tools in students’ projects using Google Site
This presentation describes the process of incorporating various students projects in Google Site. Students projects using Picasa, Voicethread, Google Docs, Youtube, Blogger, Eyejot for video messaging/Vlog are all embedded in each student’s Google Site page as an e-portfolio. Instructor’s Google Site page brings all students together in one place, creating a community of learners. We will share our experience of using Google Site for the last two years. Also, students’ self-reports and feedback on their projects are summarized and analyzed.
Dealing with Usability and Functionality Issues — The Case of MoodleReader
Thomas Robb, Kyoto Sangyo University
This presentation will take a backward look at the development of the MoodleReader module which serves students with quizzes on their extensive reading. After briefly introducing the module and its current functions, we will discuss how student use of the module as well as the demands of instructors for various new functions has impacted on the design and functionality of the module. Plans for further development will also be presented.
Assessing and Improving Oral Proficiency Through OWL Testing Software
In the spring semester 2010, the Department of Modern Languages at the College of Staten Island adopted the OWL testing software to assess student oral proficiency at the beginning and intermediate levels in French, Spanish and Italian. After a successful beginning, instructors explored more diverse uses of the software, including culture-related tasks through visual material. Examples of these exams along with instructor oral feedbacks will be presented. A discussion about technical integration and pedagogical results will follow.
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Effects of Text-based Synchronous Computer-mediated Communication on Second Language Acquisition: A Quantitative Meta-analysis
The present study synthesized about 11 primary studies that had examined the impact of SCMC on second language acquisition, and investigated (1) how effective SCMC is in promoting second language acquisition, (2) whether effectiveness of SCMC is related to specific language aspects examined, (3) whether certain types of SCMC activities are more effective, and (4) whether the treatment period affects effectiveness of SCMC. The overall effect of SCMC and the effectiveness of activity features and treatment period were addressed by calculating effect size d values. Findings are expected to provide a precise research synthesis with statistical information of SCMC studies.