Saturday

CALICO 1999

Conference Presentations
Day Three: June 5, 1999

8:00 – 8:45

Using Multimedia to Develop Skills in Using the ACTFL Guidelines to Assess Oral Proficiency
Dorry Kenyon and Helen Carpenter
The Center for Applied Linguistics (CAL) will demonstrate a multimedia program that trains educators to assess oral proficiency using ACTFL’s Guidelines for Speaking Proficiency. In training to rate Simulated Oral Proficiency Interviews (SOPIs), this self-instructional program adapts to individual skill levels in rating, offering more practice when it is needed, using authentic responses from SOPI examinees. The program first establishes a context for assessing oral proficiency by walking raters through a mini-SOPI. It then divides the Guidelines into learnable units, provides insight into oral proficiency task design, offers plenty of practice in rating, and then gives users a chance to assess their developing rating skills.

Using CALL to Teach CALL: Preparing an Interactive Web-based CALL Course for Distance Education
Christine Bauer-Ramazani and Lorraine Williams
This paper suggests steps to prepare a web-based interactive CALL course for distance education. The presenters will share their experience creating such a course for an MATESL program which has overseas satellites and wants to maximize opportunities for interaction, learning, and collaboration between the overseas and on-campus course participants by creating a “tandem.” The course preparation includes forming a resource project group designed to insure technical support, student support services, and inter-institutional fit. Portions of a CALL course web site will illustrate how online participants can experience the technology first-hand, which they can then apply to their own classroom situation.

Design and Development of Courseware for High School and College EFL Students in Taiwan
Yuli Hung Yeh
The paper describes a one-year project supported by National Science Council in Taiwan. A piece of courseware about an important Western holiday, Easter, was completed in the project by a team of professors, programmers, and art workers. Sounds and pictures were used as mnemonic devices for student memory, learning efficiency, and motivation. The courseware facilitates reading comprehension, vocabulary learning, and, most important of all, cultural understanding for intermediate EFL college students and high school students. An initial formative evaluation was conducted and provided data for necessary revision. Reflections, suggestions and recommendations for future development are also presented.

Chinese Orthography on the Internet
Wen-chiu Tu
The goals of this web-based courseware are to introduce the fundamental concepts of the Chinese writing system and to enhance beginning learners’ character recognition and reading skills. This computer courseware will be integrated with the new Chinese Basic Course developed at Defense Language Institute. The course is a structure-driven program enriched by animations, interactive graphics, authentic/simulated materials, various handwritten styles as well as function-based tasks. Factual information includes basic strokes, stroke order, methods of construction, radicals and a systematic correspondence between the simplified form and the traditional form. Approximately 250 of the most frequently used characters will be included.

Developing Multimedia Course-ware for Advanced Learners of Bi-Alphabetic Languages (Serbian/Croatian)
Zenon Obydzinski
The presented course combines the Asymetrix ToolBook technology with a content-based approach designed to enhance language proficiency (Serbian/Croatian), sociopolitical and cultural awareness of US Government personnel sent to the area of the former Yugoslavia. The software combines intensive language study by providing authentic language materials, activities and tasks, and taking user input in both Latinized and Cyrillic alphabets. The presentation will also show how various modes of interactivity can be achieved through multiple levels of formative feedback, multimedia and user selection of language modality.

9:00 – 9:45

WebQuest: A Web-based Tool for Collaborative Research and Writing in Second Language Instruction
J. Scott Payne
Inspired by the vast quantity of authentic second language resources available on the World Wide Web, WebQuest is an effort to combine this rich supply with the dynamics of collaborative research and project-based learning in an online second language learning environment. WebQuest is based on a three-step research and writing model, where students 1) collaboratively build a database of text and images, 2) judiciously select and synthesize information, and finally 3) communicate their newly acquired knowledge in multiple draft essays. The presenter will demonstrate and discuss the utility of such an online system in second language instruction. Audience participation is encouraged.

 

Translation Software: It’s There, How Can We Use It?
Finley Taylor
This presentation is a continued exploration of translation software as a creative tool. Beginning and advanced students used translations, dictionaries, inflection and grammar aids to learn more about the target language and culture. Both problematical and rewarding aspects of using translating software are discussed with examples in French, German, and Spanish. Globalink’s Power Translator will be demonstrated.

Does CALL Motivate in Acquiring Kanji Characters in Japanese?
Sato Van Aacken
Knowledge of about 1000 basic kanji characters is imperative to comprehend written Japanese. Actually learning kanji is not difficult but is extremely time-consuming. How can students study kanji more quickly in order to take advantage of available sources of information such as newspapers on the internet, especially in the foreign language environment? This study examines language learning motivation and strategies in relation to learning kanji using CALL.

Academic Writing in a Multimedia Classroom
Amanda Brooks and Rachida Primov
The presenters will recount their experience setting up a multimedia classroom for upper-level language classes. They will introduce the materials used and address questions of relative advantages and disadvantages of their choices. In particular they will look at the implementation and use of a collaborative writing software application Commonspace (in its French/Spanish plug-ins) in conjunction with their use of the Internet for this course. From a pedagogical perspective, they will address questions of how and why to teach writing in a multimedia classroom and will share effective techniques for student and computer interaction during class time.

Multimedia Authoring Without Technical Support
Greg Kessler and Gary Whitby
The presenters will share their experience in designing a specialized multimedia application without the assistance of outside technical experts. Through the use of Hyperstudio, the presenters designed a multimedia tour of Ohio State University for their English as a Second Language students. This program introduces students to the various cultural and educational resources of the community. Through the integration of video, audio, animation, and still images, the presenters developed a useful and coherent means by which students could learn about their new community, improve their language skills, and develop basic computer keyboard and mouse techniques.

10:00 – 10:45

Web-Based Class Annotation of Spanish Literature: Collaborative Textual Analysis On-line
Owen McGrath, Erika Shuh, Ignacio Navarrete, and Doug Moody
Asking students to author materials for publication on the web may have a positive impact on quality, but what are the particular advantages for helping students encounter, understand, and communicate in a foreign language literature class? One professor has created an assignment which scholars of old would appreciate: asking students to annotate a text. Their annotations take on a decidedly modern form when linked to a shared copy of the text on the web. Students read, discuss, and further annotate each other’s comments–experiencing not only the academic but also the social and communicative utility of the target language.

Curriculum and Assessment Choice in a Web Based Language Course
Stephen Hoyt and Daniel Reed
Internet-based technologies offer teachers a wide array of content and assessment choices. Neither student centered, nor content-driven, this course plan concerns itself with developing the capability of analysis, a skill necessary to study higher-level subjects in the target language. To date, little has been done to specifically focus on the development of analytic skills. The discussion will cover both the organization of web-based material to enhance analytical skills and allow for an accurate assessment of course objectives. One of the fundamental assumptions in this course is allowing for user freedom of choice in both course content and assessment techniques.

Using Automatic Writing Environments
François Mangenot and Brian Gill
The presenters will demonstrate some recent French programs that help students overcome the cognitive overload associated with complex writing tasks in a playful and motivating way. They will also discuss findings based on the use of these programs and briefly go over their theoretical underpinnings. Featured will be Gammes d’ecriture, a writing environment for French based on the Italian Scrivere con Word Prof.

 

Triggers of Collaboration in Computer-Assisted Language Learning
Franklin Bacheller
The presenter will report on the results of a study investigating the triggers of collaboration of ESL learners cooperating to complete one of three activities at the computer. Learners were videotaped, and the language they used was analyzed for collaboration. Collaboration was defined in the Vygotskian sense of assisted performance. Results showed that learners assisted each other with language and with tasks and that they negotiated meaning while assisting. Underlying this assistance were difficulties learners experienced with partner language and computer representations. The presenter will reveal the triggers of collaboration and discuss implications for the design of CALL materials.

Internet: Global English Learning to Global English Activities
Yoshio Narisawa
The introduction of Internet into EFL classes has brought profound changes to college English teaching in Japan. English Instructors in Japan have shown increasing interest in bringing new methods and technology to motivate students to communicate in English. The students are involved in communicating with students abroad via the Internet. They regularly exchange informal letters and gain knowledge and intercultural experience as well as writing skills. The Internet has given an opportunity to have written communication abroad, while inspiring the students to improve their communicative skills and also fostering global awareness.

User-Centred Methodological Framework for the Design of Hypermedia-based CALL Systems
Jae Eun Shin
The aim of this research is to improve the educational quality of hypermedia-based CALL systems. The results of a survey are reported which indicate that many of the deficiencies of current systems can be attributed to an insufficient consideration of the needs of users and to the lack of an explicit educational philosophy guiding their design. Accordingly a methodological framework has been developed which draws on recent developments in the field of Software engineering/HCI regarding interactive system design; and on a general constructivist approach to the design of computer-based learning material. The methodological framework involves a number of key features including use of learning scenarios to identify user requirements (Carroll, 1995); development of prototypes embodying different design options; and a series of formative workshops to evaluate the prototypes. The paper reports progress so far in the use of the methodology. The overall results provide broad support for the general approach of basing design on an open constructivist model. They also confirm the general validity of the user-centered, scenario-based methodological approach.

11:00 – 11:45

Reading Strategies and the Web
Ruth Sanders and Alton Sanders
Language students in second year and above sometimes find it difficult to manage the large texts they are assigned in the target language. Currently, explicit instruction in reading strategies based on the work of Adler and Van Doren (1940) and many other writers since has gained favor. An automated reading aid can help students develop effective strategies by providing click-on word lookup, multiple passes over the text, and self-quizzes on vocabulary for any digitized text. The texts need not be processed by the teacher in advance. The reading aid we have implemented for German will be available at no charge.

Learning a Language in a Virtual Study Abroad Program
Inmaculada Pertusa, Melissa Stewart, and Carollyn Rudesill
The University of Kentucky and the Kentucky Institute for International Studies (KIIS) have provided funding for the Segovia Virtual Study Abroad Program, which will link the Segovia program with students in Spanish classes in the USA. Following the model presented in the Spring semester of 1997 by Carollyn Rudesill in Morelia, Mexico, this new web page will include photographs taken by our students in Spain every week (Album de fotos) and entries that they write about their experiences (Diario). There are several pedagogical aspects of the project that can be incorporated into Spanish classes. Students can write questions in Spanish about various aspects of the study abroad experience to the KIIS group (Intercambios). These questions will be answered by students on a regular basis throughout the semester on the web page. Furthermore, the Segovia group’s activities–including visits to other Spanish cities (Madrid, Toledo, Salamanca), art museums, famous castles, and historic sites in Segovia can provide a basis for meaningful discussion about culture in a variety of Spanish classes. Both the Segovia Virtual Study Abroad Program, and the Morelia Virtual Study Abroad Program offers an opportunity for a special “intercambio,” as program participants share their experiences while they are having them via Internet and students at home participate with the group in daily life in Segovia and in their travels around the peninsula. In our presentation we will talk about the outcomes of the Virtual Segovia program, compared with the results of the first program in Morelia. We will describe the details of both programs, hoping that other programs like these will come after.

Developing an Integrated Five-Skills Multimedia Model for Language Learning
Virginia Lewis and Glenda Carl
At Southwestern University, modern languages across the board have been implementing a strategic model for intensifying language offerings during the first two years through internally developed multimedia applications based on an integrated five skills approach. These can be delivered in the Language Learning Center or, increasingly, in networked dorm rooms via the world wide web. Cultural themes integrate the lessons, which progress from simple overviews to basic listening and reading composition and grammar to reading and writing, both in and outside the networked classroom. The presenters will show and discuss examples for German, French, and Latin. Particularly emphasized will be the use of in-class and out-of-class composition in the target language as a capstone of the learning experience. Initial results

Electronic Portfolios in ESL Writing: An Alternative Approach
Saad Alkahtani
Creating and using electronic portfolios facilitate language teaching and learning in general and ESL writing in particular. This session will demonstrate how teachers can create electronic portfolios using the World Wide Web. The session will: (a) highlight advantages of creating and using electronic portfolios, (b) present the content of the electronic portfolios, and (c) demonstrate the tools that can be used to create electronic portfolios. The session will support ESL teachers in using electronic portfolios in the ESL writing classroom. They will also learn about the several advantages that electronic portfolios have over portfolios in the traditional paper and folder format.

Where’s the Language Lab? Issues in Developing and Managing a Multimedia Language Center
Samantha Earp and Rachel Saury
In this session the panelists will discuss the development and management of language centers to support technology-enhanced language learning and will provide resources for those who are interested in setting up or modernizing such a facility in their institution.

Teaching Variables as Predictors of Students’ E-mail Writing Strategies
Yu-Chih Sun
The current study aimed to identify students’ e-mail writing strategies and to examine, to what extent, the teaching variables influence the students’ use of e-mail writing strategies. A 50 item 5-point Likert scale self-report instrument, Strategy Inventory for E-mail Writing (SIEW), was derived to measure students’ e-mail writing strategies. Questionnaires for ESL teachers were also developed to identify selected teaching characteristics. The subjects were 16 ESL teachers and their 208 students in academic universities in the United States. The results of the study show that negative and significant difference was found between students’ use of communication strategies and some teaching variables. 

2:30 – 3:15

The ALLE Project
Brian Gill
How can many more language instructors be brought into the CALL fold and encouraged to make use of technology in their regular teaching practice? This is the goal of the ALLE project, a provincially funded initiative in Alberta, Canada. This second progress report (the first was at FLEAT3 in 1997) will focus on the design and access of “didacticized” Web sites, the use of workshops and groups, and a very simple template system we have developed for producing Web-based activities.

A Computerized Progress Test of ESL Listening
Sha Balizet
While computers are often used for language learning, classroom tests are typically paper-and-pencil. Testing listening skill development by computer offers numerous advantages: superior audio quality, test-taker control of audio prompt timing, automatic test scoring, and more instruction time (since students can be tested in a computer lab). Despite these advantages, little research has examined computerized testing for classroom applications. This study compared computer and audiocassette/paper-and-pencil versions of a listening test. Data showed that intermediate ESL test-takers performed similarly in both modes. A survey of examinees and instructors found they were positive about the advantages of computer-delivered tests.

Protecting Students and Staff in Technological Environments
Fawn Whittaker
Students learning in a technologically-based setting should enjoy an unstressful, healthy environment. Such an environment includes 1) clearly marked, easily accessible, functioning resources, 2) an organized server and records backup system with effective viral protection, and 3) an environmentally unstressful technological environment for learning. Photographs are provided illustrating the difference between a “closed” versus an “open” environment. A list of preventative measures includes various backing up measures and viral protectors. Facts about adverse ELF and VLF fields, how to measure them, and how to protect the staff and students from adverse effects are included. Discussion follows!

Integrating Literature, Music and Web Quizzes in the Intermediate ESL Classroom
Lydia Froio
Literature and music can be motivating, challenging yet somewhat daunting to lower level language students. Technology and a variety of software programs can provide the needed support. This presentation will demonstrate how three programs, Language and Reading Companion (LaRC), Cantare and Netquiz, are used with ESL students in Quebec. LaRC is a multimedia program which includes audio, video, a glossary, comprehension questions and language study exercises. NetQuiz allows users to create multimedia quizzes for the web without the need for programming skills or knowledge of HTML. Cantare allows users to create language learning lessons using songs from compact discs.

Internet-based CALL–What Does It Take, and What Can It Do?
Sabine Siekmann
This presentation will address issues of feasibility of supplemental Internet-based CALL from both the instructor’s and the students’ point of view. I will demonstrate that the increased time demands on the designer/instructor are outweighed by access to unique information that could not have been obtained in the regular classroom. Establishing a learning environment in the target language, which encourages meaningful communication in that foreign language, has many benefits. Additional and specialized practice is made available to the students; however the computer does not and cannot replace the need for teacher involvement in the learning process even in Internet-based CALL.

3:30 – 4:15

Foreign Language Communications Technology at a Technical University: Setting up on a Shoestring
Bernice Nuhfer-Halten
This presentation is about using technology in foreign language instruction, including its advantages and disadvantages, problems and solutions (when possible), and plans for future additions. Also presented is a discussion of the implementation of the following modalities: e-mail; word processing in Spanish using Atajo, and in French using Système D; using the Internet for in-class activities and out-of-class assignments; SCOLA, international satellite television broadcasting; videotaping skits; audiotaping oral tests; commercially-prepared CD-ROM programs, including translators (Spanish Assistant and French Assistant) games (Triple Play Plus) and complete language instruction (Learn to Speak Spanish & Learn to Speak French); and others.

Language Learning Through Technical Interaction (The R.T.A. Project at UC Davis)
Dick Walters and Jacqueline Kaminski
All learning requires interaction. Remote Technical Assistance (RTA) enhances human interaction, live and asynchronous, multimedia, and platform independent through Internet links anywhere in the world. We will demonstrate this interactive tool and discuss its use in second language acquisition at the University of California, Davis. RTA permits multi-lingual dialog, annotated white-boarding, stored sound, collaborative writing, and sharing of internet URLs. All exchanges are archived for future research.

The Effect of Hypertext Glossing on Reading Comprehension and Reading Rate
Robert Larson
A study compared the effect of printed and hypertext glosses on reading rate and reading comprehension. It also investigated student attitudes toward using computers for L2 reading. Elementary college Latin students read four passages of prose–two using computerized texts and two using printed texts. The results indicated that 1) students read 17% faster using hypertext and 2) there was no significant difference in reading comprehension based on the type of gloss. Seventy-two percent of the students felt that the computer helped them read more efficiently by reducing the work needed to access supplementary information.

Computer-Mediated Communication for L2 Learning: Learners’ Interactional Strategies in Internet Relay Chat
Keiko Kitade
Studies of L2 classroom interaction suggest that cooperative and comprehensible interactions facilitate L2 learning. The nature of the L2 classroom environment with its less imposing contexts, however, has restricted the range of interaction that occurs among learners of the same proficiency level (Ellis, 1991). Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) may provide potential benefits for L2 learning because it provides a broader range of interactions, among NS-NNS and NNS-NNS with different levels of proficiency. CMC is, however, a newly invented variety of interaction and has unique linguistic and interactional features (e.g. Interactive text-based discourse and no turn taking competition) which are distinct from both written and oral interactions. Although CMC has some potential benefits for L2 learning and has spread remarkably as a new means of interaction, there is little work to date which examines the linguistic and interactional features of CMC. Such a study should contribute to our knowledge of how CMC can be applied to L2 learning. This study explores the L2 learners’ interactions in CMC qualitatively to clarify to what extent CMC is actually a useful device for L2 learning. This study examines how Japanese as a foreign language learners actually interact in Internet Chat (IC) and reports that L2 learners’ strategies in CMC take advantage of distinct linguistic and interactional features of IC. The results indicate that CMC provides potential benefits for L2 learning: facilitating comprehensible and contextualized interaction, learners’ self-correction, and a collaborative learning environment.

Computer Skills ESL Class: Integrating Language in Technology Class
Makoto Yoshii
This session will report on a seven-week, Computer Skills Class in an ESL setting. Students, novice at computers, learn different topics in English including basic functions of Windows, word processing, searching in the Internet, email, PowerPoint presentation. For a final project, students conduct research and make PowerPoint presentations, integrating all the skills acquired in the class. This session will look at the practical ways to integrate language learning in content-based, computer skills class. Included will be samples of PowerPoint presentations, findings from a survey of students about the class, the handout of the syllabus and the sample class activities.