Saturday

CALICO 2001

Conference Presentations
Day Three: March 17, 2001

8:00 – 8:45

Addressing Individual’s Learning Styles by Using Web-Based Instructional Tools
Esperanza Roman-Mendoza
With the increasing use of web-based instructional tools, such as WebCT, to enhance foreign language teaching, some specific questions arise regarding the effectiveness of these tools from all perspectives. This paper will address the relationship between the use of web-based course materials and individual learning styles by describing a case study carried out with students from a Spanish Culture course at the advanced level. The session will present (a) the WebCT materials and activities developed for the course, (b) the research design, (c) the qualitative and quantitative findings, and (d) several specific recommendations to tailor web-based language instruction to accommodate different learning styles.

Chinese and Italian: Different Authoring Platforms, Their Viability for Students and Teachers
Mao Chen and Shirley Smith
This discussion and demonstration illustrates the viability in Italian and Chinese language and culture lessons of the following authoring platforms: X-media engine templates, Libra, Web Makers, (and somewhat less extensively Manna and Tick-Tac-Toon). The discussion and presentation will revolve around contrasting the scope and limitations of these systems. How does one choose which is most suitable and what success have we had with using one or another in a college language learning environment. Each authoring system raises a different set of pedagogical questions concerning effective language teaching and student learning. The materials (CALL lessons themselves) provide a context for an empirical discussion of computer-assisted pedagogy.

Digital Video Reports to Improve Oral Language Skills
Franziska Lys and Mark Schaefer
Improving oral skills in advanced speakers is challenging. Many students at this level feel comfortable communicating even though their language is far from being perfect. The difficult part for teachers is to help students improve their language without constantly interrupting the flow of the conversation and finding tasks that help them focus on form as much as on content. To accomplish this goal, students were working over the course of 10 weeks with a digital video camera to put together a video report on an issue of their choice. These projects were then shared on the Internet. The presentation will describe the technological and pedagogical merits of such an approach.

NEARStar: Meeting the Reading and English Language Development Needs of Young Learners via the Web
Zoe Ann Brown and David Brauer
NEARStar’s purpose is to meet the reading and language development needs of elementary English language learners with a language-rich supplemental reading program composed of interactive, animated activities. This web-based, multimedia program is designed for students who are in the beginning stages of both reading and oral language development. Students engage in comprehensive instructional support and assessment activities which teach the basic skills necessary for beginning reading proficiency. Teachers are able to instantly access individual student or group diagnostic reports to identify individual student strengths and areas needing additional support. Reports also provide customized professional development recommendations based on student individual needs.

Computerized Testing, Communicative Tasks, and the National Standards
Eric Jewell
Researchers in foreign language testing have indicated a need to “test the way we teach.” Test items and tasks should reflect our instructional methodologies and classroom activities. Advances in computer technology allow for the creation of truly communicative testing items without placing undue stress on a teacher’s time or resources. This presentation explains how paper tests often are adapted to the computer without improvement in quality. It also demonstrates several ways to enhance these tests using communicative tasks. Targeted standards from the National Standards for Foreign Language Learning are also identified for these tasks.

Better than Being There: Advantages of Virtual Discussion in the Advanced Foreign Language Classroom
Christine Coleman Young
Monitored student discussion, without the physical presence of a teacher in the classroom, creates an optimal student centered learning opportunity. Participants in this study engaged in both classroom and WebCT chatroom discussion of literary works in an advanced Spanish class. Teacher observations and student evaluations indicate that chatrooms lower students’ affective filter, stimulate more discussion of the material, result in participation by all students by removing many social barriers, and give weaker students the self-confidence to speak in subsequent classroom discussions. A further advantage is that WebCT chat discussions are logged, which allows in-depth analysis of student performance.

The Orality in the Intelligent Classroom (via Computer)
Ninette Cartes-Enríquez
This was a five-month study among university students, whose main purpose was to develop orality in English as a Second Language in the intelligent classroom, after being exposed to Internet materials. The specific objectives of this work were: to learn how to persuade and argue, develop analysis and synthesis, and know the steps the sample followed to acquire the target language. The research design consisted of Pretest/Development of strategies by the students/Postest. The study yielded qualitative and quantitative evaluation data. The quantitative assessment of the learning/acquiring processes was evaluated weekly by the teacher, and the qualitative one was obtained by means of questionnaires and interviews. 

9:00 – 9:45

From Landeskunde PC to Landeskunde PC Web or the Not-So-Easy Transition to Web-Based Hypertext Information Systems
Rainer Kussler
At Calico 1998 I reported on the development of Landeskunde PC, a hypertext information system created with Guide 3.1 and distributed on diskettes for installation on individual work stations. This presentation will report on the conversion of this application into a web site, Landeskunde PC Web. Although the web site serves much the same purpose as its ancestor, it necessitated a significantly different development approach. The presentation will focus on the major differences. It will conclude with some advice for those who may consider transferring CALL applications into web sites, touching on aspects like development tools, structure, navigation and browser peculiarities.

Using a Crossword Program to Increase Vocabulary
Martine Peters
Crosswords have been used in the language classroom for many years. However, with the development of a software program, crossword puzzles can be built by a computer in seconds after the data have been entered. This presentation will show how a class of beginners used the software to improve each others’ vocabulary knowledge. Lists of thematic words were used by the students who wrote three definitions for each word chosen. The crossword puzzles that were built were then filled in by the other students whose vocabulary knowledge was tested. Results show that students were highly motivated and learned more vocabulary than by using traditional methods of studying lists of words.

Through the Eyes of the Learners: Computer-Assisted Instruction and Second Language Acquisition Research
John Liontas and Meena Singhal
This presentation describes the results of two studies which investigated the effects of computer-assisted strategy training on second language learners’ reading comprehension of both academic and literary texts and Vivid Phrasal Idioms. The subjects of the first study were 22 English as a Second Language adult university learners enrolled in a freshman composition course; the second study included 60 third-year adult university learners of Spanish, French, and German. Results of computer-mediated reading tasks, post-reviewuation surveys, and measures of reading proficiency show significant differences in overall reading comprehension and proficiency. Results also indicate the beneficial effects of Computer-Assisted Instruction in enhancing learner motivation and affective factors and in improving use of reading strategies.

Without Human Intercourse, It’s Just Not Interactive!
Lonnie Turbee and Greg Younger
The word “interactive” is used to sell language programs, yet this concept is often poorly defined. Many on-line programs claim to be fully interactive, but in fact they are not. Today, students may interact with computers, teachers, peers, web-based content, or target language native speakers in live chat areas. However, the complexities of human intercourse are often avoided. Much current software is demotivating and pedagogically inferior to full on-line human interaction. This presentation will examine different types of interactivity and their associated pedagogy, from computerized practice of discrete items to the most complete interaction that learners can experience on line.

Learner Input in the Design and Development of CALL Materials: The Advanced-Level Listening Comprehension Project at the University of Wisconsin-Madison
Dianna L. Murphy and Xenia Bonch-Bruevich
Usability and feedback tests with potential users of CALL materials are frequently conducted relatively late in the design and development process. This paper will show how including students in the early stages of the development of a web-based, multilingual, advanced level listening and viewing comprehension application has challenged some of our basic assumptions about listening, listening strategies, and learning styles as well as helping to shape the design of the program itself.

Revisiting HyperCard: Surviving Learning Aids
Erika Gilson
The potential for language learning that the Internet provides is not in dispute. Yet, current instructional technology has neglected beginning students’ needs. Students, especially students of truly ‘foreign’ languages, still are in need to acquire speedily a minimal concrete base on which to build. Vocabulary and familiarity with the sounds of the language form an important part of this base. Thus far, nothing available on the Internet affords all the functionality which HyperCard did. Two HyperCard stacks developed as learner-adaptive memorizing and listening aids almost 10 years ago will be revisited.

10:00 – 10:45

Enhancing Preservice Teacher Education with New Innovative Technologies
Jacqueline Kaminski, Alan Garfinkel, and Marcela van Olphen
This presentation details the successful implementation of a web-based distributed learning environment, employing WebCT, in the foreign language education methods course (EDCI427) at Purdue University. Previously approached by preservice teachers (EDCI427 students) as individually done observations, technology revolutionized the course. During Fall 2000, preservice teachers and experienced in-service teachers worked collaboratively and communicated synchronously/asynchronously to increase interactivity, reflecting on their experiences and methods. Culminating in a digital video exercise, preservice teachers were provided with an innovative and interactive experience which proved to be invaluable. Attendees will receive a tour of the on-line course, examples of student work, hand-outs, and data.

Going Virtual? Tips, Tricks and Recommendations from a Recent Survivor
Mary Fetherston
More and more colleges and universities are transitioning to virtual language labs. Unfortunately, all too many are getting bogged down in the trial and error stage. Come learn about the successes and problems encountered at a number of other sites as well as tips and tricks to make your journey to the virtual side easier.

Content Selection and Didactic Strategies for a Web Service: the Experience with Internet Actuel for French as Foreign Language
Wilfried Decoo and Jozef Colpaert
Web services for language learning pose a number of challenges. How can we make the offer match the level of the student? How can we assure an optimal interaction between class learning and web-based learning? How can we adapt the strategies to the limitations of the Web? How can we integrate surfing tasks into an efficient didactic model? Our experience with Internet Actuel, launched in August 1999, provides some answers to these questions.

Web-Based Language Courses: Design Issues
Dana Paramskas
The WWW is now well integrated into most second/foreign language courses (“WWW-Assisted Language Learning”). Distance Education formats have also embraced the WWW in full course format (“WWW-Based Language Learning”). However, the WWW is a different medium from CALL and requires some different strategies for design. One of those strategies must be a re-evaluation of what “communicative” means in this context. We have two web-based courses for introductory French: the first has been on line for the past six semesters and the second for two semesters. Both of these courses offer insights into design problems and student reaction which might be useful for any second language instructor.

Using CourseInfo/Blackboard in Multisection Basic Language Courses
Catherine M. Barrette
CourseInfo/Blackboard (CI/B) is a user friendly tool for establishing a course web site for a single instructor and his/her course(s), but how well does it work in other situations? Other contexts introduce different challenges to the use of CI/B: multisection courses and cross-listed or multilevel classes. The challenges in the situation of multisection courses are with a common syllabus that allows for individual teaching styles and differences in computer literacy. Cross-listing and combined undergraduate/graduate courses create access and interaction difficulties in the more attractive features of CI/B: chat, discussion boards, and class e-mail. This discussion provides strategies for dealing with these challenges effectively.

New Wine in New Bottles: The MERLOT World Languages Discipline Team
Scott Despain, Kylie Hsu, Carla Meskill, John Thomas, and Sandra Walker
The Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching (MERLOT) is a growing collection of on-line learning materials and support resources that help faculty enhance their instruction. Participating in the growth and peer review of quality on-line materials is The World Languages Discipline Team. A panel of representatives from this team will present an overview of the MERLOT mission and organization and the processes designed by team members for expanding and peer reviewing the World Languages collection and will demonstrate access and contribution procedures for the audience. Supporting materials will be distributed to audience members and questions for discussion solicited.

Brigham Young University’s Multimedia Testing Template
Russell Hansen
Although the benefits of computerized testing have not been proven through research, they have in fact been proven by practical use. One example is the multimedia tests used in the College of Humanities at Brigham Young University (BYU). Previously, these tests were available only at BYU because creating them required HyperCard programming ability. Now, a new testing template exists which makes it possible for any teacher to create tests without having programming experience. This presentation will show the template, demonstrate its ease of use and range of testing types, and give purchasing information.

11:00 – 11:45

Repurposing the Proven: Faculty Development Trends with CALL, Virtual Collaboration and Geographical Information Systems
Joel Goldfield
This presentation describes and demonstrates concepts and technologies for a Virtual Language Lab (VLL) with Geographical Information Systems (GIS) used in the International Studies/Language Technology (ISLT) Initiative funded by the Rockefeller Brothers Fund. A strong need for new faculty models in Foreign Languages Across the Curriculum, developing technology skills, boosting language enrollments, and removing linguistic barriers led to the creation of this interdisciplinary project involving eight disciplines and up to 20 courses. The VLL component allows faculty to collaborate with “virtual” office hours and distance-learning tutorials. Faculty development here is also compared with historical trends and challenges to institutional implementation.

Technology-Enhanced Peer Review: A Comparative Study of the Effect of Commenting Mode on Revision
Randall Sadler
This study investigates whether differing modes of peer review (technology-enhanced vs. traditional) make a difference in the area, the type, and the nature of comments by peers and the teacher and how those differences affect revisions. The findings show that the overall number of comments, percentage of revision-oriented comments, and the overall number of revisions made by the experimental group was larger than those of the control group. This study suggests that electronic peer review may serve as an effective tool for the revision process and that the timing of teacher comments is crucial to maximize the effects of peer feedback.

Fostering Second Language Learning Communities with On-Line Collaboration Tools
Lisa Nalbone
Growing trends in education emphasize the importance of learning communities to foster material mastery. As this theory applies to language acquisition, implementing technological resources to establish learning communities becomes a crucial element of student performance. With the emphasis on problem-solving through collaboration, focus shifts toward student performance achieved through communicative forums, supported by research theories that collaboration enhances written/oral skills, accuracy, and vocabulary mastery. This paper discusses using collaboration tools in the elementary second language classroom and examines practical measures with WebCT-related applications and their impact on collaborative learning, considering that success of these activities depends on clearly established communicative goals.

Intercultural Communication and the Foreign Language Subject
Steve Thorne
The Pennsylvania State University’s Foreign Language Telecollaboration Project is a grant-funded, multiyear research program. Through empirical analysis, we will assess the effectiveness of telecollaborative intercultural pedagogy for foreign language learning in French, German, and Spanish. The telecollaboration sections are compared to conventional sections of the same course across the three languages. Our research focuses on the quantitative assessment of standardized pre/posttests (e.g., oral and written proficiency) as well as qualitative analysis of discourse properties (e.g., the development of syntactic complexity and morphological accuracy) in student produced texts. This presentation will provide a preliminary report from our first year of operation.

Preparing Tomorrow’s Language Teachers to Use Technology: Case Study of a Grassroots Initiative
Inge DiBella, Thomas C. Reeves, Antje Krüger, and Nina Augustin
The University of Georgia has implemented a technology training program for German Teaching Assistants (TAs). Centered on the TA’s needs and interests, this training resulted in original classroom-tested material (developed by TAs) and an on-line teaching portfolio. The overall theme of the training is “Using Technology as a Cognitive Tool.” The panel will discuss practical issues and guidelines in establishing a technology program for TAs which puts as much emphasis on increasing pedagogical expertise as on gaining technological skills. The panel consists of the program director, TAs, and an instructional technologist.

FLOW APPLIED: Optimal Computer-Based Language Learning
Shamus Johnson
The presenter will discuss the practicality of applying Flow (optimal learning) to immersive language environments using evolving multimedia technologies. Design issues include incorporating simulation, world-building and problem-solving tasks into an immersive language learning experience. This presentation is a follow-up to a paper delivered at CALICO 2000, where the theory of Flow was presented. This year, practical design issues will be the focus.

Re-Searching the Web for Language Professionals
William Fletcher
Despite its richness, the Web’s magnitude and disorganization discourage instruction or investigation by language learners and professionals. Too often, locating eloquent examples, insights into contemporary usage, elusive facts, or learner-accessible readings depends more on serendipitous finds than on systematic searches. The right tools and techniques facilitate efficient, rewarding on-line (re)searching. The presenter surveys presearch activities, search automation technologies, and postsearch assessment strategies beneficial to teacher and student alike. Then he demonstrates his free KwiCFinder and WebKWiC concordancers, which turn the Web into an inexhaustible linguistic and cultural corpus, and discusses approaches to managing search results with XML.

1:30 – 2:15

Comparing Synchronous and Asynchronous Communication in a Foreign Language Classroom
Martha Castañeda
Comparing face to face and electronic discussions has been the focus of many research studies in Computer-Mediated Communication. A promising line of inquiry is examining electronic discourse in its own right. In this study, the participants used both asynchronous and synchronous communication in their discussions. In addition, this study examined the quantity and complexity of language produced by university students in a foreign language class.

Computer-Mediated Chat: Focusing on Form While Emphasizing Open-Ended, Meaningful Discussion
Lisa Jurkowitz
Grammatical accuracy has often been raised in Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) studies as a difficult goal to achieve, especially if the primary pedagogical objective is for students to engage in open-ended, meaningful discussions in the target language. The purpose of this session is to present the results of a pilot study that used chat with intermediate French students. A variety of tasks, aimed at helping students focus on form, will be presented. Students perceptions of the effectiveness of these tasks, as well as their attitudes regarding CMCs helpfulness in improving their general language skills will also be discussed.

When Nonnative Speakers meet Native Speakers On-Line: A Study of Students’ Discourse Strategies in an English Grammar Course
Chia-Huan Ho
Several research studies have been conducted that examine second language learners’ use of e-mail and the Internet to learn target languages, writing, and culture (e.g., Warschauer, 1999; Sotillo, 2000; Miller-Hartmann, 2000). Fifteen graduate students from the TESOL master’s program at a research university in New York state participated in this study. Students took an English grammar class and interacted with the instructor and other students via the Web. This paper focuses on students’ learning strategies, specifically the on-line discourse strategies used by native speakers and nonnative speakers. How their discourse and strategies correlate with the perception of learning and social presence is also discussed.

The Success of Task Type in Facilitating Oral Language Production in On-Line Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) Projects
Shannon Sauro
Easy to use and available free on-line, synchronous text/voice chat programs allow foreign language students the chance to use more authentic language. Still relatively underutilized, this medium represents an area of potential research into CMC tasks appropriate for synchronous voice-chatting. This paper investigates two such communicative language tasks conducted over an on-line text/voice-chat program and looks at which type of task and which type of dyad, native speaker/nonnative speaker or nonnative speaker/nonnative speaker, facilitates the greatest amount of total language use and negotiation of meaning. In addition, the paper examines which type of task might be most useful in a foreign language classroom.

One Class In Two Countries
Yoko Kano
Students in Intermediate Japanese at University of North Carolina, Wilmington (UNCW) were instructed to carry conversations and exchange information through an asynchronous bulletin board called Forum and live videoconferencing five times a semester with students in Japan. The students are assigned to interview their partners in Japan through Forum, type a summary of the interview, and have their writings corrected by their partners in Japan. UNCW students correspond in Japanese, and Japanese students correspond in English. The UNCW students receive most of the class instructions from the materials on the web site. This session will introduce the course structure and discuss the findings.

Development of a Prototype of DVD-Audio Instructional Materials for Listening Foreign Language Sounds
Tsuneo Yamada
To examine the possibility of Digital Versatile Disc (DVD) as a medium for instructional materials, we have developed several prototypes using DVD beginning in 1996. In 1999/2000, we developed a prototype of instructional materials for English listening using DVD-Audio. In the DVD-Audio format, both high quality sounds (up to 192 kHz and 24 bit sampling, 6 channel multi-audio Surround recording) and slideshows of the scripts were realized. In addition, supersonic sounds and sound image tracking were available in this system. The effects of such “authentic” audiovisual characteristics on listening and learning behavior were evaluated.

German Business Correspondence: Computerized Approaches
Tom Leech
This presentation examines the use of the Internet to teach German business correspondence, not only as an authentic source of information, but also and primarily as a medium for distance learning by means of HTML forms, WebCALIS exercises, and the Blackboard testing feature. A comprehensive survey of computer applications and Internet resources relating to German business correspondence will be included, and new features of the WebCALIS program will be demonstrated.

Development of ForMOOsa That Addresses Local Needs in Taiwan
Hsien-Chin Liou
In this demonstration, the author will talk about how a MOO in Taiwan, called ForMOOsa, was constructed. Its design was based on culture in Taiwan by adding local legends as story books and bot-narrators. The technology used is enCore Xpress Web Objected Oriented; thus, it has the strengths of both Web and synchronous text-based virtual reality as used in traditional MOOs. Experiences of a graduate students’ group term project that aimed for English teaching in a Taiwanese context and teaching a course “Internet English” in a vocational high school will be used to verify the claims of MOO advantages over other Internet technologies.

Bringing Digital Video into On-Line Language Courses
Eugene Borzov
Interactive educational multimedia is a powerful tool for distant visual communication. This presentation will examine the ways to integrate digital video technology into a language classroom. The process of shooting, editing, and formatting educational video for students learning English as a Second Language will be discussed. The focus will be on a comparative analysis of traditional VCR/Camcorder technology versus digital cameras and modern CD-ROM/DVD/Web technologies for disseminating the resulting video. Examples of effective techniques and original QuickTime movie clips will be included in the presentation.

Bridging the Gulf Between Language Teachers and Computers––How to Expand Understanding and Promote Competent and Successful Use of CALL in Your Institution
S. Levi
In order to foster the use of CALL, we have developed a “convincing PowerPoint presentation” which presents a brief overview of history of CALL, clearly explains the present trends and finally shows the main advantages of the use of CALL as reported in professional publications. This presentation has been made with a significant effect to colleagues, departments, and decision-making bodies. Subsequent to the presentation, we have noticed a positive change and a much better use of CALL among colleagues. We are willing to share this “convincing slide show” with colleagues who would like to use it in their own or other institutions.

Electronic Portfolios
Stayc DuBravac
Portfolio grading has become increasingly popular in language programs in the US. While various second language composition courses have championed portfolio grading, the cause has not spread to the lower division language courses or to the upper division literature or language courses. This presentation examines the use of electronic portfolios in third and fourth semester French classes. Participants will identify goals of electronic portfolios and various methods of incorporating portfolios into the foreign language curriculum. Handouts include a discussion of portfolio types, ideas of what to include in electronic portfolios, portfolio “do’s” and “dont’s,” and how to assess portfolios.

Teaching Arabic as a Foreign Language: Technical Problems and Pedagogical Solutions
Mootacem Bellah Mhiri
As a less commonly taught language, Arabic poses a double pedagogical challenge for both instructor and learner. On the one hand, access to Arabic speakers is limited, and on the other, pedagogical materials (e.g., textbooks and software) are fewer and often less well developed than for more commonly taught languages. The internet includes a vast array of on-line resources geared toward the Arabic speaking world. How can these materials be used in foreign language education, especially at earlier levels of instruction? This presentation sums up the major difficulties, offers some tested solutions to the above obstacles, and includes examples of activities.

Interactive Chinese Video Exercises On-Line
Marisa Castagno and Mingliang Hu
Marisa Castagno and Mingliang Hu developed an interactive Chinese exercise web site to meet some of the most common problems American students have in learning Chinese: tones, Chinese characters, and grammar. Each exercise consists of a web page split in half. The top part contains the video with the transcript in both traditional Chinese and English. The bottom has multiple multiple-choice questions with feedback based on the dialogue. Questions, answers, and feedback are written in traditional Chinese. The combination of video and text in Chinese and English allows students to use these exercises in both beginning and advanced courses.

Distance Learning: Teaching with French in Action at the African Virtual University
Nicole Vaget
In 1999-2000, I taught, via the web and satellite TV, an elementary French language course to students and their moderators in several African Sites in Ghana, Kenya, and Zimbabwe. Web pages and e-mail were used to manage the course and communicate all nonverbal information to the moderators. Once a week, direct interaction with the students was provided by the professor via live satellite TV sessions, and the students responded via telephone lines.

Putting the E-Class in Its Place: The Interstitial Role of Electronic Communication in World Language Classrooms and Programs
Kevin Gaugler
In 1995 Richard Kern experimented with synchronous electronic communication in his second semester French class. Kern concluded that such electronic interaction in prediscussion exercises fostered more sophisticated student commentary in class. This presentation will demonstrate my use and further development of Kern’s findings in several of my Spanish language, literature, and culture courses at Marist College and at the University of Connecticut. Furthermore, I will present electronic exchanges between students from a new Hispanic Studies on-line course while suggesting that a language curriculum that uses computers best supports the goals of today’s language programs.

Expanding the Power of Authentic Foreign Language Materials in Foreign Language Instruction; Less Commonly Taught Language and More Commonly Taught Language Perspectives
Gwyn E. Koepke and Gillian M. Johnson
Authentic foreign language materials aid students’ acquisition of aural skills and support the process of improving oral skills. This discussion is intended to identify and explore the advantages of the use of authentic foreign language material teaching aids that are currently available and to investigate how the needs of foreign language instructors might be better met. Attention will be given to the breadth of materials available for commonly taught languages and the scarcity of materials available for Less Commonly Taught Languages. We will also discuss ways to simplify the copyright process while expanding course content. We will explore possible value-added tools to deliver and interact with authentic material.

Listening Exercises with Digitized Audio: Beyond the Basics
George Mitrevski
This presentation shows a variety of web-based exercises using digitized audio. The presenter first describes each format for digitized audio and then shows a series of listening exercises that are appropriate for each format. The types of exercises described include listening for comprehension, dictation, audio matching, audio crossword puzzles, audio cloze, and many others. Examples are provided in English, Spanish, French, and Russian.

2:30 – 3:15

Creating Interactive Text on the Web: Bernhard Schlink’s Der Vorleser
Caroline Schaumann
This paper presents a pilot course for the “Collaboration in Virtual Space” project 2001 at Middlebury College. After reading and discussing Bernhard Schlink’s Der Vorleser, students produced, in collaborative groups, a web site with information on Schlink, the text’s cultural-historical background, and the text’s reception and developed an interactive, annotated text program on the Web. Involving students as creators, not merely consumers of technology, I suggest that my project encourages content-based and student-centered teaching. The emerging program, an effective teaching tool, will be used in future German classes at Middlebury and hopefully inspire similar projects in the future.

Comparison Between Newsgroups And WebBoard in Facilitating Foreign Language Learning
Hui-Mei Hsu
Electronic communication tools such as newsgroups and WebBoard are often used to facilitate foreign language learning. However, their differing characteristics and interfaces (e.g., web-based/telnet-based, threaded/nonthreaded) may lead to differing degrees of effectiveness. In this study, a different interface, newsgroups versus WebBoard, was implemented in each of two beginning Mandarin Chinese classes. Multiple methods were used to assess usage differences, including surveys of computer proficiency, surveys of students’ perception of on-line interaction, analysis of communication patterns, and user interviews. Research results suggest that communication patterns, effectiveness, and satisfaction vary according to interfaces.

Learner’s Perspective on On-Line Language Courses: A Case Study
Eiko Ushida and Kanae Igarashi
This session reports the results of a case study which documents learning experiences in on-line language courses. Two students took college-level first-semester on-line language courses, and kept journals to record their perspectives on learning processes. A qualitative analysis of these journal entries revealed that learners’ affective states were not static but constantly changing throughout the semester, influenced by the nature of the on-line-based instruction. Assuming that such changes in affective states have an impact on the motivation and attitudes of language learners, the presenters will discuss possible advantages and drawbacks of on-line courses as effective and efficient language instructional tools.

Building On-Line Community for Teaching: Sharing Resources and Professional Development on the Internet
Yasuhiro Omoto and Keiko Schneider
Building on-line community is a way to take full advantage of the Internet for language teaching. In non-Roman languages, it is even more important because support for multilingual computing is not always locally available. “senseiOnline listserv” functions as an exchange of information and support as well as professional development opportunity through its monthly on-line forum. Lack of materials is often problematic in Less Commonly Taught Languages. “Japanese Language Material Ring” seeks to fill the need for more materials such as copyright free/safe materials, teaching plans, and so on. Both projects use free services and can be easily implemented.

Error Feedback and Correction Strategies in Intermediate French CALL CD-ROMs
Clare Homan
Because of the relative newness of the CALL field as a whole, few evaluations have been done on the methodology of multimedia, and even fewer single out specific elements for appraisal. Two specific error treatments which have been explored in the real world environment show promise for CALL: (a) the garden path induction and correction method and (b) self-repair. I will examine in the error treatment strategies employed by a selection of intermediate French CALL CD-ROMs. How well do the two real world treatments transfer to the CALL teaching environment? Has CALL technology spawned another, new error treatment method unique to the technology-assisted environment?

Using MaxAuthor to Create CALL Courseware for Internet Delivery
Scott Brill
The University of Arizona Computer Aided Language Instruction Group (UACALI) has made freely available for noncommercial use, MaxAuthor, its CALL authoring system, which has been under development for the past decade (cali.arizona.edu). Without any programming, MaxAuthor creates language instruction courseware for: Cantonese, Chinese, Japanese, Kazakh, Korean, Russian, and 16 other languages. Completed courseware can be delivered over the Internet or in MS-Windows and can utilize audio, video, graphics, and exercises such as multiple choice, fill in the blank, listening dictation, pronunciation, and audio flash cards. This demonstration will show examples of completed courseware and how to create a simple lesson and distribute it to students.

“If You Build it, They Will Come” Or Will They?
John Liontas
Emphasis on multimedia technology has forced foreign language educators to reexamine interactive digital technologies and their potential for delivering the long awaited result: encouraging a variety of learning processes and thereby increasing learning. But technology keeps changing, more rapidly than ever. The phrase “state-of-the-art,” once the banner of any new teaching-with-technology initiative, now threatens to be a challenge that must be met at a pace more rapid than budgets or learning curves for teachers allow. Does new technology enhance the curriculum or does the enhanced curriculum demand new technology? Presentation plus group participation will illuminate both sides of the issue.

3:30 – 4:15

The Role of Chat in Increasing Student Participation
James M. Hudson and Amy Bruckman
This presentation will examine both effects and affects of using chat in a conversation-based classroom. We will present results from a semester long experiment in which students meeting in a standard second year French conversation class also met for one hour each week in a chat environment. In the classroom, the teacher tends to be the dominant figure speaking nearly an order of magnitude more than the students. All comments are directed through the teacher. On line, however, these patterns reverse; students actively take control of their learning. We will explore these results and some mechanisms that students viewed as causes.

Asynchronous Communication in the Literature Classroom
Ayo Abietou Coly
This presentation is based on my recent experience in teaching a literature course that integrates asynchronous communication as a pedagogical tool. General patterns of learner-learner interaction in the coursetalk forum will be analyzed and compared with face-to-face discussion taking place in the classroom. In addition, the study will address the repercussions of on-line discussions on the classroom environment. Finally, I will present preliminary results of an analysis of the corpus in an ongoing project that was generated through on-line discussion in an effort to trace the development of students’ analytical skills and cultural attitudes. Transcripts of the students’ exchanges, as well as their responses to an open-ended evaluation, will be shared with the audience members.

Exploring the Potential of Hypermedia Annotations for Second Language Reading
Gulcan Ercetin
This study investigates the use of hypermedia annotations by intermediate and advanced second language learners. A total of 100 ESL learners were asked to read a hypermedia document which incorporated multimedia annotations, including text, graphics, sound, and video to provide cues about the text. The program tracked every interaction of the readers with the document, including which annotations they chose to view and how much time they spent on a particular annotations. Results indicated a main effect for annotation type but no interaction effect between proficiency and annotation.

Integrating Databases with On-Line Courses
Paul Daniels
With the recent surge in offering web-based courses, educators are integrating their web pages with databases to offer the flexibility to save, search, and retrieve large amounts of course information. A sample database currently used in a writing class will be used to demonstrate how teachers can save, search and retrieve student prewriting and writing activities through the integration of HTML, a SQL database, and a PHP script. Finally, additional applications for using web-enabled databases for on-line coursework will be demonstrated.

Cognitive-Oriented Web-Based Courseware Design for Teaching Academic English
Jin Chen and Toshio Okamoto
The goal of this research, the English Learning for Academic (ELA) language project, is to build a database system for delivery of academic English learning courses via the World Wide Web at the university level. The ELA is to deliver teaching information through multimedia in accordance with the improvement of students’ academic language competence by means of the cognitive academic language learning approach (Chamot, 1987). This presentation mainly describes the accomplishment of this teaching approach in the courseware design of ELA.

Telephone Speech Data in the Foreign Language Classroom
David Miller
This presentation will discuss various applications for recorded telephone speech data in the contemporary foreign language classroom. It is based on examples from usage in advanced German courses at the university level. The source for the data covered in this presentation are the CallFriend/CallHome telephone speech corpora conducted at and published by the Linguistic Data Consortium at the University of Pennsylvania. The languages covered in these studies include: Arabic, English, German, Japanese, Mandarin, Spanish, Farsi, Hindi, Korean, French, Tamil, and Vietnamese. On-line lexicons, pronunciation guides, and transcriptions for a subset of languages were also created.

What’s the Point? PowerPoint in the Foreign Language Classroom
Read Gilgen
PowerPoint is now finding its way into the classroom. But, what’s the point? Can PowerPoint really help students learn better? How must the use of PowerPoint be adapted for the academic environment? Is there potential for such diverse topics as foreign languages or natural sciences? This session presents some of the most common and justifiable complaints about the use of PowerPoint in the classroom. However, concrete examples show how animations, graphics, and multimedia elements can be used for more effective teaching and learning, including ways to adapt PowerPoint to the foreign language classroom.