Saturday

CALICO 2002

Conference Presentations
Day Three: March 30, 2002

8:00 – 8:45 

The Effects of Focus-on-form Treatment on Fragile Morphosyntactic Features
Eugene Mogilevski
This paper describes an action research undertaken at Monash University in 1999-2000 on the basis of the data provided by 72 second year students. An evaluation of advanced level students’ writing in French (Mogilevski & Burston, 1999) demonstrated a disturbingly low morphosyntactic accuracy. A treatment based on the use of a computer grammar checker affected the individual distribution of errors but did not lead to any significant improvement of the group scores. Further research included the implementation and testing of strategies designed to promote error awareness and attention to feedback, and to improve the efficiency of student self-correction.

The Role of Computer-Delivered Input in Oral Production: Ramifications for Distance Learning
Theresa A. Antes
French students who simultaneously listened while reading computer-presented print materials showed development of overall speaking proficiency to a greater extent than those enrolled in the same courses who read the material only. Reading comprehension was not affected by the presence of the audio material. This study presents implications for distance learning: whenever possible, audio material should accompany print material because the combination allows students to build phoneme-grapheme representations more accurately than activities focusing on the two skills separately; focused comprehension activities can aid the development of oral proficiency in the long term.

Rich Content from Speech Transcriptions
Kathleen Egan
Rich content in foreign languages is available everyday from broadcast news. However, in most instances, the data is hard to capture in text format. Speech Recognition technology provides a unique, while errorful, quick access to the transcribed data synchronized with the audio. The demonstration will show an audio transcription capability in Arabic that allows learners to view the text and listen to the audio. Listening comprehension, translation and other language tasks can be created on the basis of the material. Searching for the right audio segment in a data set is usually a time consuming task, while, with Automated Speech Transcription, the data is easily searched resulting in the ability to access a variety of audio segments as quickly as searching for text. This technology has not yet been applied to language learning. The presentation will suggest ways of maximizing this capability.

The ViewPoints Digital Video Project of the Five Colleges of Ohio
Susan Carpenter Binkley
Lyudmila Portnova
In 1996 the Five Colleges of Ohio consortium received a grant from the Mellon Foundation to strengthen foreign language learning through the collaborative use of technology. Since then, language faculty from all five institutions and representing all languages taught at those institutions (Spanish, French, German, Russian, Chinese, Swahili, and Japanese) have worked together to create multimedia projects. The ViewPoints series, in which digital video of native speakers is a central feature for listening comprehension activities, has become the most significant endeavor. We will discuss the pedagogical benefits of ViewPoints from both the instructor and student perspective, and share the positive lessons learned from working collaboratively.

The Challenge of Learner Training for CALL
Philip Hubbard
Addressing both disk and web-based applications, this presentation argues for going beyond teaching students how to simply use technology to helping them understand why and when to use it for meeting specific language learning objectives. It identifies areas in which learners can acquire relevant skills and knowledge, including second language learning theory and practice, so that they can make informed decisions about how best to exploit language learning applications. Emphasizing pervasive and repeated learner training in place of one-time tutorials, it discusses problems with putting these principles into practice in the presenter’s own language courses and lessons learned from trying.

Judging the Quality of Student Participation in Online Courses
Chia-Huan Ho
The quality of students’ written responses in two online English grammar courses was examined in this study. Using Grice’s (1975) Cooperative Principles of Conversation, two English grammar courses taught by the same instructor in two semesters with different class sizes were analyzed to judge students’ online participation. Online discourse in these two classes was evaluated using both qualitative and quantitative methods on four criteria: quality, quantity, relatedness, and manner (Grice, 1975). Specifically, the study attempts to answer the following question: Compared to a larger class, did the students in a smaller online class have more and in-depth interaction with their classmates and the instructor? Results can inform the design and maintenance of effective virtual language learning communities.

Interaction, Communication and Language in ICT: Japanese EFL Students
Malcolm Field
Writers in Western societies have considered the changing nature of the individual, the school, and language use through Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) (Adams, 1996; Tweddle, Adams, Clark, Scrimshaw, & Walton, 1997). The Japanese have been slow to implement ICT in education. This paper reports on a study that examined the influence of ICT on language of Japanese EFL students in CALL classes through web board and email interactions. The results often did not support the writer’s preconceived bias. Models that highlight the determinants of language use and communication, and models for the use of email and ICT are proposed.

Electronic Discussion in the Technical Communication Classroom
K. C. Lee
This study investigated the feedback of students in a technical communication module on the use of the discussion forum. Responses collected via a questionnaire and messages posted on the discussion forum were analyzed. Findings showed that students preferred, thus participated more in, face-to-face discussions. However, most agreed that there was more equal class participation, more time for them to think before they gave their feedback, and that they made more thoughtful and quality comments on the discussion forum. Interaction analysis, on the other hand, revealed that there was negotiation of meaning, sharing of information, and identifying of dissonance among ideas.

ESL Learners’ Self-efficacy and Language Anxiety in Computer-networked Interaction
Kyungsun Han
This study explores how interaction modes, that is, computer-networked mode versus face-to-face mode, affect ESL learners’ self-perception of efficacy in the English language and their language anxiety. Although a majority of studies have illustrated the advantageous features of computer-mediated class environments in language teaching and learning, little research has dealt with how learners are aware of their language skills distinct from what are the usual skills required in a regular language class and how these differences may relate to their language anxiety. In addition, I will focus on cultural differences in the self-efficacy and language anxiety expressed by students with different native languages.

9:00 – 9:45 

The Use of Computerized DVD to Facilitate the Acquisition of Pragmatic Competence: Six Degrees of Comprehension
Barbara Lafford
Peter Lafford
After a brief theoretical introduction to the acquisition of pragmatic competence and factors necessary for successful textual comprehension, this presentation will explore ways in which DVD materials captured digitally on the computer can be used effectively in the language laboratory for individual/interactive work or in the classroom. Specifically, this six-point plan will focus on how this technology can help students rely on their prior knowledge to aid comprehension, raise their pragmatic consciousness, help them confirm/reject hypotheses about the L2 formed during the conversion of input to intake, and use application activities to utilize their newly acquired knowledge in communicative situations.

IN-VISION: Using Technology to Reach Out to the World
Marie Trayer
IN-VISION, a technology challenge grant which supports K-12 Spanish, uses exciting, innovative technology-based activities to enhance Spanish lessons in project schools. The presenters demonstrate the use of two-way video conferencing among schools as well as to Spain. IN-VISION students and teachers practice Spanish using web-based activities and streamed video. Technology Learning Centers on the web site provide students with integrated curriculum activities that are completely interactive. Audience members will receive clear directions on how to integrate these activities into their own classrooms. Handouts provided.

The Homo.Cyber Project: Practicing Contructionism on the Web
Christina Frei
Constructivist approaches to teaching and learning inform the syllabus of a fifth-semester conversation and composition course in which students created their own web page in connection with their readings of an authentic literary text (Max Frisch’s Homo faber). In collaborative group work, students created the contents for different components: biography, text analyses, historical background, geography, and didactications emphasizing integrated skills and discourse competence. For instance, students created listening (working with WIMBA software) and reading exercises, compiled essay and discussion questions, and created (with Hot Potatoes) vocabulary exercises. The student-initiated (created) web site, in turn, is incorporated in the fourth-semester syllabus, where students use the peer-generated information and comprehension checks for their understanding of an abridged version of Homo faber.

How Are They Doing? Assessing the Effectiveness of Web-based Instruction
Stephen Fleming
The University of Hawaii’s Web-based courses in advanced Chinese and Korean focus mostly on reading and writing. Communicative interaction in forums, ‘word banks,’ and ‘grammar clinics’ is essential to the courses. The text-based environment differs significantly from a traditional classroom as a locus for learning reading and writing skills. This session focuses on assessment of student satisfaction and evaluation of the effectiveness of the courses in meeting their targeted goals as reflected in a case study conducted during one semester’s Chinese course. Strategies for effective formative and summative course evaluation, as well as assessment of student achievement, will be addressed.

Internet-mediated Intercultural Communication and Foreign Language Learning
Steve Thorne
The Penn State Foreign Language Telecollaboration Project is a grant funded, multiyear research program. Through empirical analysis, we are assessing the effectiveness of telecollaborative intercultural pedagogy for foreign language learning in French, German, and Spanish. The telecollaboration sections are compared to conventional sections of the same course across the three languages. Our research focuses on the quantitative assessment of standardized pre/post tests (e.g., oral and written proficiency) as well as qualitative analysis of discourse properties (e.g., the development of syntactic complexity and morphological accuracy) in student produced texts. This presentation will report findings from our first and second year of operation.

Advanced Technology Training for Teaching Assistants: Phase II of a Training Program Developed at the University of Georgia
Inge DiBella
This presentation discusses the results of the second phase of a highly successful technology training program for German Teaching Assistants (TAs) begun in Spring 2001 (presented at CALICO 2001 in Orlando, FL). Phase II of this program involves the effective application of technological and pedagogical skills to original audio/visual productions. The presentation demonstrates how the use of higher-end instructional technologies considerably strengthens the pedagogical expertise of TAs as they are producing high quality learning modules for enhanced student learning. The presentation includes guidelines for offering specialized and advanced technology training to TAs in foreign language departments.

Competencies: Do We Need Any to Fully Integrate Technology in the Second Language Classroom?
Martine Peters
Technology has rapidly been changing the face of the classroom in the last decade. While many researchers have shown that technology plays an important role in the classroom, very few have examined the impact of these changes on teachers and their need for technological training. This paper will present data showing which competencies need to be developed in order to fully integrate technology in the second language classroom. With this knowledge, proper teacher training can be implemented and students will in turn benefit from more knowledgeable teachers.

Using WebCT in a TESL Teacher Preparation Course
Wei Zhu
Ruth Roux
This presentation discusses the integration of computer technology in TESL teacher preparation courses, focusing particularly on the impact of WebCT on the language development of and content acquisition by nonnative English speakers. The presentation reports a case study of a nonnative English speaker in a language testing class. The class met weekly in the traditional format, and WebCT was used to support learning and teaching. Data for the study were collected from different sources for the purpose of triangulation: questions and responses posted by students on the bulletin board, the students’ weekly journals, and student interviews and questionnaires.

10:00 – 10:45 

Using Concept Maps for Modern Language Learning
Olaf Böhlke
María Mena-Böhlke
Concept mapping is a powerful visual learning tool that can be used by students to represent their knowledge, thinking, and understanding of a given topic. This presentation is an introduction to concept mapping with emphasis on its use for modern language instruction. A couple of software programs that facilitate the process of creating and modifying concept maps both online and standalone will be presented.

Using Computerized Oral Tests in an ESL Environment
Troy Cox
The Oral Testing Software (OTS) created at Brigham Young University (BYU) has been used at BYU’s English Language Center (ELC) since the fall of 2000. This presentation will focus on how the OTS is used in an ESL environment by examining the experiences and perceptions of students, teachers, and lab employees. It will also address technical issues in administering the OTS to students in a Macintosh Lab. It is hoped that the ELC’s experience with computerized oral testing software can address concerns that may arise for others trying to use similar programs.

Virtual Learning Communities in Foreign Language Classes: Linking Languages, Linking Cultures
Lara Lomicka
This presentation reports on a collaborative project between classes at three institutions: the University of South Carolina, The Pennsylvania State University, and the Lycée Paul Héroult. The project integrates various forms of CMC such as paired email correspondence, textual chat in small groups, and audio/visual communication via webcams. In addition to CMC, students make regular contributions to a collaborative web site, including photos, surveys, collages, reactions pieces, and personal creations. Specifically, I will (a) provide examples of collaborative activities, (b) discuss the implementation of computer-mediated communication, (c) provide a summary of student reactions and perceptions of their own language learning during the project, and (d) discuss the curricular challenges of such a project.

Investigating the Effects of L1 and L2 Glosses on Foreign Language Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary Retention
Howard Hao-Jan
With the increased use of the authentic materials on the Web, reading from computer screens has become an important new skill for language learners. This study compared the effect of L1 and L2 glosses on EFL learners’ online reading comprehension and vocabulary retention. College EFL students were divided into three groups. Students in group one conducted reading without accessing any glosses, students in group two were allowed to use Chinese glosses, and those in group three were allowed to use English glosses. Students’ online reading behaviors were tracked and recorded in a SQL database. The performances of the three groups in reading comprehension and vocabulary tests were compared.

Speech-enabled Multimedia Lessons Using Several Authoring Systems: A Comparison
Johannes Vazulik
Jesus Aguirre
Tom Newman
During the past year, US Military Academy faculty members have developed speech-enabled multimedia Spanish lessons using WinCalis, GLAS, SRI’s EduSpeak, and MILT. The lessons were developed using a standard format which employed speech recognition technology in a multiple-choice question format with digital video and/or still pictures. The goal of this study was to determine which system yielded the most satisfactory results. This presentation includes a review of the project, a demonstration of the courseware, the findings of a cadet attitude survey, and a discussion.

Experiencing French Mass Media via WebCT
Courtenay Dodge
Sandrine Dincki
“Mass media and culture in the US and in France” is a new course aimed at developing an awareness of the constant interplay between mass media and culture. Students are asked to compare authentic French and US media material. WebCT is used as a virtual resources and communication center. Current, authentic, and constantly updated material is made available; our students interact with other students and with French native speakers to discuss and compare their views via online fora. Various WebCT activities will be presented and their design will be discussed.

An Activity Theoretic Perspective on L2 Motivation and Computer-mediated Communication: A Case Study
Eduardo Negueruela
This paper presents research addressing the complex relationships linking L2 motivation and the classroom use of computer-mediated communication (CMC). The analysis is based on an ethnographic interview with an American, intermediate level Spanish student who participated in a semester-long, intercultural CMC-based partnership with students in Spain (using chat, email, threaded discussion, and video conferencing). This project is theoretically aligned with Activity Theory (Leontev, 1978) and offers a framework for conceptualizing L2 motivation in relation to the cultural and interactional affordances provided by CMC. Findings from this case study will be presented and used to develop a project-based pedagogy enhanced by CMC.

Interpreting Cultural Data in the Classroom: Uses of Cultura Archives
Shoggy Waryn
The cross-cultural project CULTURA is predicated upon having two separate groups of students negotiate cultural understanding through the Web. However, the project can also be applied in “closed circuit” where students use and analyze the content of previous experiments to draw conclusions without the benefit of a “live” exchange. In this mode, while students do not experience a direct encounter with the other culture, they still have access to all the materials and methodologies. This presentation focuses on the pedagogy behind “closed circuit” uses of CULTURA and gives specific examples of various classroom practices.

Internet Relay Chat as a Space for Multidirectional Peer Support
Lawrence Williams
As part of research sponsored by Penn State’s Center for Language Acquisition, this semester-long project created new virtual language learning communities by grouping university students of French from three different levels (first, second, and third semester) in Internet Relay Chat rooms on a local server. Besides providing students with an environment having the potential for multidirectional peer support of different kinds, these learning spaces served as preparation for synchronous communication with francophones. Samples of chat logs as well as excerpts from interviews with students will be discussed, using sociocultural theory as an analytic framework.

11:00 – 11:45

Hitting the High-tech Wall in Web-based Environments
Barbara Lindsey
Kristina R. Sazaki
The language instructor who wishes to provide students with web-based activities that reinforce the dynamic, interactive classroom environment runs up against the high tech wall. Using the example of dependent word order in German, this presentation describes the impasse that divides communicative-based classroom practices from web-based technologies and suggests solutions requiring the commitment of administrators, publishers, and those in the ITS sector. Included are survey results of foreign language instructors who maintain web sites for their students, a review of German textbook web sites, and web sites which focus on dependent word order in German.

Webheads: Online Community Building Since 1998
Vance Stevens
Writing for Webheads is an ongoing “experiment in world friendship through online language learning” whose participants have been meeting weekly online for almost three years now. During that time, Webheads have experimented with numerous synchronous and web-based multimedia communications formats, and presented at several live and online conference venues. We will demonstrate our use of the latest synchronous communications technologies, including video and voice, while showing delegates around the Webheads community. The presenter will present from a remote location and convene members of the community entirely online for the demonstration.

NATALIA, a Touch of Subjectivity: From Authentic Materials to the Web Guides
Krystyna Wachowicz
The successful web-based approach to the so-called language sustainment process in the government language communities continues to be a topic of experimental research. This paper demonstrates and provides an analysis of the design features of two extensive web-based, interactive language programs for Russian and Serbian consisting respectively of 40 and 16 units. Based on the comparisons of the statistical data and several subsequent user questionnaires obtained by three separate government learning centers, the paper argues for a novel approach to creating online language learning communities. Using a network of web guides in addition to the online language instructors, the programs present an original, sociolinguistically viable approach to authentic materials and tasks.

Using Computer-assisted Classroom Discussion (CACD) as an Authentic Assessment Tool
Claudia Kost
Lisa Jurkowitz
Julian Heather
Foreign language classes today are generally replete with personalized, meaningful communicative tasks. Yet, assessment tools often do not require genuine communication. One means of bridging the gap between teaching and testing is to use computer-assisted classroom discussion (CACD) because it involves a two-way information exchange with immediate feedback and is purposeful, contextualized, and open-ended. The presenters of this session will report their findings in intermediate French and German language classes regarding the use of CACD to assess the students’ content knowledge, as well as their grammatical, discourse, sociolinguistic, and strategic competence.

Live Action English Interactive: TPR on a Computer!
Contee Seely
Larry Statan
Elizabeth Hanson-Smith
Robert Wachman
Elizabeth Kuizenga Romijn
The first Total Physical Response CD-ROM, Live Action English Interactive, is based on the classic TPR book Live Action English. It consists of 12 action series and a variety of engaging interactive activities based on each series. Using high quality video, digital sound, and still photographs, it includes grammar and dictation components. In one activity the user interacts with video by dragging objects directly to it. The video immediately responds with action and speech. Level: high beginning/low intermediate. Educational levels: second grade through university. The presenters, including the authors of the book, are members of the development team. See a demo online at www.speakware.com/laedemo.html

Foreign Language Composition and Computers: What’s Out There?
Cathy Barrette
Research indicates that foreign language students write better when they identify their audience, and, with the widespread use of technology, writers now have access to many audiences. For foreign language composition students, computers offer access to a broad virtual audience, but not all computer uses guide them to take advantage of that potential audience. This presentation evaluates three of those computer uses found in current composition textbooks: (a) computerized versions of in-text activities, (b) online expansion activities, and (c) a writing assistant. A critical evaluation of these materials forms the basis for a discussion of their effective use and potential improvements.

Collaboration in the Virtual Museum
Caroline Schaumann
J. Scott Payne
Aaron Coburn
This presentation will provide an overview of a collaborative German project initiated by five liberal arts colleges using the Virtual Museum, a portfolio-style, multimedia writing tool developed at the Center for Educational Technology at Middlebury College. Findings from a pilot study will also be reported, exploring L2 writing processes in a multimedia-enabled writing environment and the effects of peer feedback on collaborative online projects. Presenters will discuss the processes of L2 writing and collaboration in an online environment by showing various student-created exhibits. We will also explore further possibilities for multi-institutional collaboration in second language instruction.

Modeling Repetitions in the Utterances of Beginning Readers
James Salsman
About one in six of the sentences recorded in the Carnegie Mellon/LDC Kids Corpus of beginning readers involved some kind of repetition. Repetitions include stuttering, self-corrections, restarting, and other forms. Although most kinds of repetitions can confound nearly all automatic speech recognition systems, repetitions have not been studied in the literature, and they are not handled well by existing reading assessment systems. This presentation will describe an ongoing effort to characterize and model the disfluencies including repetitions made in the CMU/LDC Kids Corpus. General guidelines for modeling repetitions and correctly recognizing disfluencies will be suggested.