Saturday

CALICO 2004

Conference Presentations
Day Three: June 12, 2004

8:00 – 8:45

 The Langland Project
Douglas Coleman
Greg Kessler
Langland is an “open source” project to develop a 3D multiuser virtual environment (3D-MUVE) for language learning. Users will move about in detailed scenes depicted on computer monitors, interacting with their environment and (through synchronous chat) each other. A multiuser version of the software will be demonstrated. The CALL community is invited to share in its long-term development and use.

Correlating Acoustic Analysis and Perception of the Korean Accent of English
Garry Molholt
Hee Yeoun Yoon
According to the results of a survey administered to 100 native-English-speaking university students, Korean speakers of English in a formal setting received the highest overall scores combining enthusiasm, confidence, and clarity when their utterances combined dynamic variation of intonation with moderate pace. The lowest perception scores were for utterances which combined static variation of intonation with slow pace. Between these two extremes, we found two overlapping areas. An important conclusion from this research study is that analysis of intonation should be combined with analysis of pace in order to account for and predict success for nonnative speakers in being perceived as enthusiastic, confident, and clear.

The Role of the Teacher in Foreign Language Classroom CMC: Less is More
Senta Goertler
Estela Ene
Kara McBride
Chat has become a popular foreign language classroom activity because it may lead to more equitable group work, may lessen anxiety for learners, is intrinsically attractive to many learners, and generates transcripts that learners, teachers, and researchers alike can work with later. But what should the teacher’s role during synchronous CMC be? Data from FL and ESL courses, as well as a quasi-experimental investigation this year all corroborate with recent non-CMC data to indicate that active teacher participation in group work in language classrooms may have a negative impact on student activities. Teaching implications are explored.

College Students’ Attitudes Towards Computer-mediated Versus Face-to-face Group Tests
Julian Heather
A recent innovation in language testing involves the use of computer-mediated communication (CMC) to assess individuals’ second language (L2) ability. While student reactions to this new testing format have been positive (Jurkowitz, 2002), it is unclear whether computer-mediated communicative tests are preferred over alternative testing methods. This study, therefore, compares the reactions (expressed through questionnaires) of third-semester French students to a computer-mediated communicative test and the nearest equivalent face-to-face test, a group oral exam.

Note-taking Strategies in Action
Jeanette Clement
Nonnative speakers of English have difficulty taking notes from academic lectures because of vocabulary and discourse conventions. The presenter demonstrates an interactive computer-assisted model featuring visual support for developmental note-taking strategies for comprehending and processing academic lectures.

NativeAccent Kids–Software to Teach Pronunciation of English to Children
Gary Pelton
Patti Price
Maxine Eskenazi
Tutoring children’s English pronunciation requires several fundamental differences compared to an adult system. The underlying concepts of pinpointing pronunciation errors and using an intelligent tutor can continue to be essential approaches if adapted correctly. The pinpointing technology has work for children’s voices and cannot be the main activity, evolving into an assessment at the end of a unit, after more passive activities have been completed. The intelligent tutoring still decides on student-appropriate lessons but rarely jumps from one lesson to another.

9:00– 9:45 

Create Your Own Online Language Games without Special Software
Marmo Soemarmo
The presenter has explored three approaches to online language games that can be created simply typing the data in any text editor: HTML Editor with JavaScript, Flash MX with ActionScript, and Authorware with Script. JavaScript does not allow reading external files, Flash MX can read external text files but must follow a strict format. The winner is Authorware because it can read external text files, and games can be created without having to use Authorware editor, only typing the data with any text editor. A beta version will be made available for those who want to use the tool and submit feedback.

Premiere 6.5 and Pinnacle’s Edition 5.5 versus a G5 Macintosh and iMovie
Jay Bodine
J. T. (Jolyon Timothy) Hughes
Two friendly colleagues argue the (dis-)advantages of recent programs and systems for the capture and editing (and possibly, time permitting, also burning/streaming) of digital video – Pinnacle’s Edition 5.5 (Pro) and/or Adobe’s Premiere 6.5 versus Apple’s G5 Macintosh with iMovie and/or Final Cut Pro 4.0. What capabilities are there now available for professional language instructors who are not professional video editors?

Computer-delivered Medical Interpreter’s Exam: An Update
Jerry W. Larson
Kim L. Smith
During the presentation, we will give an update on the development of a computer-delivered oral test of Spanish to be used for assessing speaking skills of individuals wishing to work as medical interpreters.

The Use of CALL in Presenting Chinese Festivals to Heritage Learners
Sue-mei Wu
At Carnegie Mellon University, heritage learners make up a large percentage of the students in the Chinese curriculum. They often have basic speaking and listening skills but very limited reading and writing skills. Chinese festivals are rich in legends, folktales, special foods, and traditions. We have developed online reading and writing modules exploring Chinese festivals to help heritage students develop their cultural literacy and reading and writing skills. These modules include original essays, photos, audio, and video segments. The content is presented according to a logical pedagogical strategy and supplemented by exercises that are interactive, personalized, and innovative.

Developing Intercultural Competence: A Project-based German-American Telecollaboration
Ilona Vandergriff
Ingrid Rose-Neiger
Successful intercultural communication places much higher demands on interlocutors than observing some rules. It requires openness to the other culture, a critical awareness of one’s own beliefs and values, as well as the skills to interpret cultural products, events, and attitudes (see Michael Byram et al., 2001, pp. 5-6). Current research suggests that such skills develop best when speakers engage with “foreign” peers on an exploration along “cultural faultlines” (Kramsch, 1993, p. 205ff). We will discuss our project-based German-American telecollaboration, outline its goals and intended outcomes, highlight its pitfalls, and provide a preliminary analysis of the results.

Collaborative Learning and Multimedia
Linda C. Jones
College students enrolled in a French course listened to a computer-based French passage in one of four randomly assigned treatments: the listening text (a) alone, with no annotations; (b) in pairs, with no annotations; (c) alone, with both written and pictorial annotations; and (d) in pairs, with both written and pictorial annotations. Overall, students recalled the passage and vocabulary words best when working with both annotation types either alone or in pairs. These results further suggest that adding pictorial and written annotations to multimedia listening comprehension activities, along with a collaborative learning strategy, results in improved comprehension and vocabulary recall.

Supporting the Learner with Complex Learning Environments
Frank Bacheller
One way that technology can support second language learners is by providing complex learning environments. These environments consist of authentic tasks, materials, and settings. They are composed of many interrelated elements, not simplified, and they present learners with challenges sufficient to cause them to depend on available resources, including each other. In this presentation, three computer-delivered environments, along with their computer-based learning activities will be demonstrated: a QuickTime VR presentation of a cemetery, a QuickTime movie of an old woman talking about relatives, and a Flash animation of a spaceship chasing a sports car.

10:00– 10:45 

Exploring the Link between Metacognitive Knowledge, Efficient Strategy Use and Learner Autonomy in Multimodal Virtual Language Learning Contexts
Mirjam Hauck
In 2002, the Department of Languages at the Open University/UK started to offer students online language tutorials using Lyceum, an Internet-based audiographic conferencing system. There is to date, however, very little published research about the link between strategic competence and effective learning, taking into account the particular situation of distance language learners. This is even more true with regard to the role of metacognitive knowledge and metacognitive strategies within multimodal contexts such as Lyceum. The present study therefore investigates how far tasks designed to foster metacognitive knowledge acquisition in virtual learning spaces can foster ‘metacognitive growth’ (White, 1999) in independent language learners.

LCTLs Online; Current Status, Future Needs
Peter Liddell
Politically, technology is often, as now, touted as an important delivery medium to professionalize the teaching of less-commonly-taught languages (LCTLs). As language professionals know, the key ingredient is the infrastructure needed to build and sustain change. This paper reviews current online offerings, with particular attention to instructor development, methods, and teacher and learner communications. It will also consider the limited research available and the emerging needs and trends in learning and teaching LCTLs either wholly or partially online.

Inquiry-based Learning with the Internet: Student Choices, Student Voices
Christopher Luke
The purposes of this presentation are: (a) to provide a theoretical backing for constructivist approaches such as inquiry-based learning in FLE and (b) to present a concrete example of inquiry-based learning from an intermediate-level university Spanish class that utilized a software program and the Internet for teaching and learning. The software developed for the course will be demonstrated. Research data to be presented include anecdotal records, classroom observations, surveys, questionnaires, and interviews.

LexiTown: Teaching K-8 Foreign Language Through Project-based Collaborative Instruction
Roxana Hadad
Gary Greenberg
Participants in this session will learn about LexiTown, an online, collaborative foreign-language-learning environment that provides any K-8 student the opportunity to learn a foreign language, regardless of access to a foreign language instructor. In LexiTown, language learning occurs through engaging students in interesting thematic projects that provide meaningful content and contexts for listening, speaking, reading, and writing activities. Each activity results in artifacts that are shared with the LexiTown community and invite comment and interaction in the target language. LexiTown is built around Northwestern University’s Collaboratory, a web-based environment that teachers use to develop innovative project-based activities.

The Role of Students’ Attitudes and Motivation in L2 Learning in Online Language Courses
Eiko Ushida
This study reports the results of research that investigated the role of students’ motivation and attitudes in second language study within online language courses. Students’ attitudes and motivation were examined within Gardner’s socioeducational framework while learning contexts were examined based on Dornyei’s components of foreign language learning motivation. The results showed that students’ motivation was significantly and positively correlated with module test scores as was the language assistants’ rating of students’ performance in online chat sessions. Most importantly, students’ motivation and attitudes significantly influenced the amount of effort that they expended to engage L2 learning activities regularly and persistently.

Increasing Technology Use in K-12 Foreign Language Classrooms through Preservice Teachers: A Classroom-based Approach
Aleidine J. Moeller
Hyesung Park
Practicing language teachers in K-12 settings are being challenged to increase student learning and achievement in their classrooms. Researchers have documented the success of technology in increasing student achievement, yet many teachers are resistant to using technology due largely to the time commitment needed for technology training. This session will present a collaborative effort that introduced technology directly into the classroom through preservice teachers working directly with K-12 teacher practitioners. A description of the project and the results of a qualitative investigation of the impact of such an approach to technology integration on K-12 teachers and learners will be highlighted.

Enhancing Student’s Written Discourse with CMC: Intermediate Chinese and Spanish
Hajime Kumahata
Chao-mei Shen
Jane Verm
Can students improve their written discourse with computer-mediated communication? Will students become more capable of reaching beyond simple sentence to short paragraph discourse in writing with CMC? The presenters will report their findings to address these questions through their studies in second-semester Intermediate Spanish and Chinese classes. One group of students uses CMC to discuss a topic, whereas the other group orally discusses the same topic in class. The written discourse analysis will focus on such areas as content, syntactic structures, and discourse organization. The CMC tool, Bulletin Board System, and its effectiveness will also be discussed.

11:00 – 11:20

Theoretical Merits of Multimedia Technology for Postperformance Feedback
Michio Tsutsui
Providing effective feedback on oral performances (e.g., speeches and dialogues between students) is an especially challenging task because this type of performance does not allow for instructor-student interaction. For these activities, feedback after the performance is a common practice. However, conventional postperformance feedback (PPF), such as written evaluations and oral comments after a performance, is often ineffective. Language Evaluator, a PPF feedback tool developed at the University of Washington, reveals from a theoretical point of view that feedback using multimedia technology has significant merits not only for language instruction but also for feedback research.

Integration of New Media for Authentic Collaborative Language Learning
Claire Trépanier
Following the creation of oral presentations using PowerPoint, French as a Second Language learners communicate ‘live’ (in synchronous mode) with French speaking students from Quebec and France using an interactive webcasting software.

Student Adaptation to Language Learning in an Online (Hybrid) Format
Kimmaree Murday
In this presentation, I examine the influence of individual differences on how students approach learning in online (hybrid) language courses at the university level. Data were collected to determine the characteristics of the online students. Four online students with contrasting characteristics were observed throughout the semester as they studied and participated in class activities. These data, combined with interviews and measures of class performance and language gain, provide four very different models for student adaptation; some successful, some not. These models will provide a basis for further investigation to allow us to help all students succeed in technology-enhanced learning environments.

Enhancing Academic Writing Classes Through Corpus-assisted Instruction
Viviana Cortes
This presentation focuses on the curriculum development and corpus collection for the design of a corpus-based course of academic writing for graduate second language students. It includes details of the corpora collection and the development of the software used for teaching this writing class. In addition, the presentation shows the course description with examples of some class activities based on the identification and analysis of the different genres represented in the corpora collected for this course.

Using Technology to Promote Learner Autonomy and Creativity
Cindy Evans
The role of CALL in promoting learner autonomy is most often conceived as the use of technology to deliver content in an individualized and/or self-paced language learning environment. This presentation will address the use of technology as ‘tool’ rather than ‘tutor’ to engage learners in creative activities for language practice. Tools such as video editors and storyboarding software empower learners to generate content for language practice. This presentation will include examples of task-based projects and a discussion of creative uses of technology from the instructors’ and learners’ perspectives.

Distance Language Learning: Focusing on the Learner
Josh Saunders
Herbert Chang
Andreas Ryschka
Krysia Smith
Silede Gross
Rama Sohonee
Since 1999, the Foreign Service Institute has been designing and developing distance language learning courseware for foreign affairs professionals around the world. Courses for teaching basic speaking skills and advanced reading skills have been created in 11 languages and are being developed for Arabic, Korean, Pashto, Polish, Portuguese, and Russian. Advanced listening skills courses are being developed for French, Korean, and Russian. Language conversion courses are being developed for Polish, Portuguese, and Slovak. This presentation by content experts discusses the learner-focused approach used in courseware design and delivery with very encouraging results.

Teaching Language with Popular Songs: Technology Tips and Tricks
Lathrop Johnson
Students react positively to popular songs in the classroom, but we must be sure that we are following the best pedagogical principles and also enhancing our instruction with the most appropriate technology available. This session provides a primer in using popular songs to support language learning.

11:30– 11:50

 Computer Adaptive Tests in ESL
Miguel Fernández
Computer-adaptive tests (CATs) started being used as an alternative method of assessing language acquisition. However, there are still some disadvantages in their use. Are they as practical, valid, and reliable as paper and pencil tests? This presentation will show when, how, and why to administer both kinds of tests.

Bridging Theory and Practice: Research-based Listening Tasks for Video Comprehension
Luba Iskold
This study, examines the effects of listening tasks performed by second-semester learners of Russian on their immediate comprehension and further retention of a video. In the control group, learners view the episodes from beginning to end; after that, they answer comprehension questions. In the experimental group, students use viewing guides designed for the present investigation, which include research-based listening tasks performed by the learners during video viewing. The research examines which of the two treatments produces greater comprehension and retention of the video text.

Foreign Language Preservice Teachers’ Perspectives about the Use of Courseware Tools
Marcela van Olphen
In this paper, I present an analysis of preservice teachers’ ideas, attitudes, and dispositions about the integration of technology into the foreign language classroom instruction; specifically, usefulness, strengths, and weakness of courseware tools. Source of data analysis include (a) interviews, (b) field notes, and (c) WebCT postings. This study demonstrated that pre-service teachers perceived that the advantages of using courseware tools in the methods class greatly enhanced their experiences in two ways: (a) interactivity and connectivity with classmates and instructor granted by the use of courseware tools and (b) opportunities for academic exchanges.

Connecting Universities, Constructing Meaning: An Analysis of Beginning and Future FL Teachers ‘Meeting’ Online
Marion Nike Arnold
Lara Ducate
Research in the field of computer-mediated communication (CMC) suggests that electronic discussions provide an environment conducive to collaborative learning and the co-construction of meaning. This presentation reports the findings of a research study in which graduate students enrolled in FL teacher training courses at two different universities ‘met’ online in small groups to discuss issues mentioned in their reading assignments and during classroom discussions. The study was designed to address the questions whether participants in electronic exchanges go beyond “serial monologues” (Henri, 1991) and engage in the social construction of knowledge and a professional community.

Using Concordances to Boost Writing
Georgette Jabbour
Using concordance lines and collocation boost writing performance. Concordance and collocation provide a focused perception on how words associate with one another to construct specific meanings. This presentation first tackles the issue of reading concordance lines and understanding collocation. It then goes on to present examples of word combinations and structures that may not be detected unless concordance is used. The examples are taken from both the sublanguage of medicine and the general language of narratives. Concordance software will show textual sets of search words and word collocation.

Electronic Language Media Archive (ELMA) à la française
Kimberly Jansma
Vera Klekovina
Spanish and French foreign language departments from several campuses of the University of California received funding to develop a searchable electronic archive of cultural modules on the Internet. Electronic Language Media Archive’s (ELMA) goal is to engender a more student-centered classroom in which students develop language proficiency through close interaction with culturally authentic materials. In this presentation, we will demonstrate the database and several cultural modules developed for French. In addition, we will explain decisions made in creating the modules, and how these materials have been integrated into the language program.

The Use of BlackBoard in Teaching Czech at a College Level
Katya Koubek
This presentation will demonstrate the use of BlackBoard software in teaching Czech at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. The focus will be made on assessment of listening and reading skills with incorporation of authentic materials such as fairy tales. Future suggestions of the use of BlackBoard will be discussed in the light of student preferences and achievements.

1:30– 2:15 

The USC Tactical Language Training Project
W. Lewis Johnson
The University of Southern California is developing interactive computer-based training in face-to-face communication, initially aimed at spoken Arabic. It employs a functional approach, only teaching enough communicative skills (verbal and gestural) and competencies that are necessary to complete specific missions and tasks. Learners get extensive practice employing their skills in a simulated foreign setting, implemented using computer game technology (Unreal Tournament). The system utilizes automated speech recognition, trained on learner speech and designed to detect and diagnose learner errors. Learners receive continual customized feedback aimed at their particular deficiencies, so learning is much more rapid than in classroom instruction.

Technology-enhanced Teaching and Learning Practices
Edward Dixon
Christina Frei
As the use of multimedia technologies is becoming standard practice in foreign language learning, its pedagogical purpose needs further investigation. While in the beginning the use of technology was seen from a more pragmatic perspective (e.g. as a time-saving device), its unique pedagogical advantages are now becoming more apparent, such as, for instance, improved interactivity and greater opportunities for independent learning. Furthermore, it may contribute to more reflective teaching and learning practices. In this paper, we will discuss some of the specific benefits of a technology-enhanced foreign language curriculum within a learner-centered environment.

Proyecto Ancla: An Experiment in Open Source
Juan Manuel Soto
The work done with Proyecto Ancla is an example of customization for development of a foreign language web-based instructional project that uses Open Source tools such as PHP and MySQL. It focuses on a self-paced use by the learner, and it provides many advantages for instructors as well as departments. Learners using Ancla have a high submission rate for their class assignments (95%) and are able to prepare before class meetings.

Synchronous Mode of Computer-mediated Communication and EFL Learners’ Oral Proficiency Development
Huifen Lin
This presentation reports the findings of an experimental study conducted to investigate if asynchronous and synchronous forms of computer-mediated communication enhance EFL learners’ oral proficiency development. Ninety-six EFL learners participated in the study and were randomly assigned to control group and two experimental groups – synchronous and asynchronous CMC. The subjects engaged in either asynchronous or synchronous forms of interaction twice per week for 12 weeks. No significant difference was found between students’ pretest and posttest in regards to oral proficiency, but participants in synchronous CMC group reported that they became more confident in their speaking than those in asynchronous CMC group 

The Relationship Between Personality and Learning Behaviors in a Multimedia Application for Grammar Instruction
Fenfang Hwu
In a previous study, the author observed distinct behaviors between learners of different personality types via computer tracking. Learners of one personality type had more tendency to change one particular sequence or skipping one task. This seemed to indicate that they adapted the application to their preferred learning styles. Consequently, in this study, the application is redesigned to accommodate personality differences. Learners are asked to choose their preferred format. Their choices and learning behaviors are recorded by tracking. These data, along with their learning outcomes and self-reported surveys on personality and learning, are compared and analyzed to draw further implications for the relationship between personality and learning behaviors.

2:30– 3:15

J-PEP: A Perceptual Test of English Pronunciation for Japanese EFL Students
Tim Riney
J-PEP, using Cedrus SuperLab, assesses the accuracy of Japanese perception of English Pronunciation. Perception is measured by having the student listen to sound files and respond via either a keyboard or a response pad. Some of the tasks are the following: Based on hearing a group of speakers each reading the same sentences, identify those who are native speakers of English and those who are not; those natives who are British and American; and those Japanese who have relatively “good” and “bad” accents. J-PEP also includes more narrowly focused perceptual tests involving suprasegmentals and segmentals.

Auf geht’s! A Multimedia Course for First-Year College German
Lee Forester
Anne Green
The session will present Auf geht’s!, a unique multimedia approach to classroom-based first-year German, currently begin developed with a FIPSE grant. The course materials emphasize culture and fully integrate multiple media (print, web, CD-ROM). The vision of this project will be presented, and a demo of selected elements of the interactive software and print materials will also be shown to illustrate this innovative project.

The Implementation of Asynchronous Discussion in the Content-based EFL Class
Chi-Fen Emily Chen
Wei-Yuan Eugene Cheng
This paper presents a situated study of the implementation of asynchronous discussion as a required component in a large content-based university EFL class in Taiwan. The study, using action research methodology, aims to investigate the effectiveness of using this learning mode to enhance students learning of both content and language. The study first analyzes the students’ participation and interaction in different asynchronous discussion groups and then uses the instructor’s observation notes as well as students’ questionnaire responses to discuss how factors in cognitive, linguistic, and socioaffective aspects affected their engagement in asynchronous discussion and learning of content and language skills.

Synthesizing Corrective Utterances for Spoken Dialogue-based CALL
Antoine Raux
Maxine Eskenazi
Alan Black
In a realistic immersion dialogue, the language learner may be pressed for time and the correction must be condensed into one or two utterances at most. In this presentation, we will describe a method for generating corrective sentences to nonnative ungrammatical spoken sentences. Assuming the nonnative utterance was recognized correctly by a speech recognizer, we compare it to a database of correct sentences and detect the problematic words. Then, using a speech synthesizer, we produce a correct utterance with prosodic emphasis on the corrected words.

NVivo: New Generation of Qualitative Research in Second Language Acquisition
Marat Sanatullov
Aleidine J. Moeller
In a step-by-step fashion, the session demonstrates the use of NVivo software program by analyzing the data of a qualitative research project in the field of second language acquisition. Representing a new generation of the qualitative research tools, this program integrates the processes of exploration, interpretation, and questioning by analyzing rich-text and fluid data with no fixed analysis. The functions of using attributes and nodes, think-aloud coding and searching for text patterns, and preparing cross-tabulated comparisons and conceptual maps are reviewed and demonstrated in the context of the language research project.

CALLing Success: Creating an Integrated Instructional Environment
Hale Thomas
Mark Bryant
Senta Goertler
Kara McBride
One challenge facing instructors wishing to use CALL is the convenient and reliable access to both human and technical resources to support their efforts. To address this challenge the College of Humanities at the University of Arizona has implemented a collaborative approach to CALL: teachers, administrators, researchers, and technology developers work together to create an ideal CALL environment for learning, teaching, and researching within the financial and technological possibilities of the college. This presentation discusses the philosophy behind and the process of creating an ideal environment for technology-enhanced learning and research on language learning.

Creating Websites for Lifelong Learning: A Case Study
Sharon Scinicariello
What happens when students exhaust their school’s course offerings in a language? If they cannot find courses nearby or on line, what do they do? This presentation outlines the development of websites designed to support “graduates” of experimental courses in Arabic and Turkish who want to continue learning. Topics include (a) the identification of learner needs, (b) lessons learned from the evaluation of existing sites for language learning, (c) the selection of resources to include, and (d) the development of activities to help learners plan and assess their own learning.