Thursday

CALICO 2005

Conference Presentations
Day One: May 19, 2005

 

10:00 – 10:45

 Instructional Uses of LARC’s Digital Media Archive (DMA): A Case Study
Moira DiMauro-Jackson
Robin Martin
This case study will show how LARC’s Digital Media Archive (DMA), an online collaborative media archive for language instruction, was integrated with Blackboard and used over a two-semester period for first-year Italian students at Texas State University. The study will also show how developing course content with specific learning objectives can inform instruction as well as student coursework. Examples of student work submitted to the archive will be demonstrated, as well as the method for adding content to DMA.

 FSI’s Best Practices in Mentoring for Distance Language Learning
Josh Saunders
Distance learning is one of the training options available to foreign affairs professionals to develop the language skills that the Department of State and the nation need for real communication. The Foreign Service Institute (FSI) offers distance learning courses for 11 languages. The presenter will share the best practices in remote instruction, known as mentoring, which is a key element to the success of FSI’s distance learning program. Participants will gain an understanding of the pedagogical strategies and technical tools that the mentor uses to develop the student’s listening, reading, and speaking skills at a distance.

 Create, Manage, and Deliver Web-based Content Using Antesoft WebSpace and SANS eSoloist™ Software
Ron Remschel
SANS, Inc., the exclusive licensor of Sony Language Learning Software, presents software tools for content creation and web-based delivery. Antesoft WebSpace is an easy-to-use, authoring, and web-based content management software package. The new SANS eSoloist™ Virtual PC Comparative Recorder (a derivative of the Sony Soloist® Digital PC Comparative Recording) by design can be easily embedded within language lessons created using the WebSpace software. With eSoloist, students can work on multimedia assignments, including comparative recording activities, that can be saved and reviewed anytime and anywhere.

 The Use of Learner-behavior Tracking Technology in CALL Studies: A Review of Research Objectives, Methods, and Tracking Data Analysis Techniques
Fenfang Hwu
This paper reviews the CALL studies in which computer tracking is used to record learner behaviors. It classifies existing research objectives and methods, the variety of data recorded, and the range of approaches used to analyze and interpret these data. Through reviewing existing research studies, this paper points out what research hypotheses remain to be further tested and identifies what tracking data can be used to investigate a certain language learning behavior. Such understanding provides avenues for tracking-system design and helps guide researchers who seek to use such data to gain better understanding of second language learning.

 Spell Checking in CALL–What Factors Matter?
Anne Rimrott
Generic spell checkers enjoy great popularity in the foreign language classroom. However, their effectiveness in correcting misspellings by nonnative writers has not been studied widely. This presentation discusses the influence of proficiency level and task type on the correction success of spell checkers in CALL. During the spring semester 2004, we analyzed 1091 misspellings from 32 beginner and 16 intermediate university students of German. Results indicate that both proficiency level and task type influence the misspellings learners produce and affect the spell checker’s correction success. Our presentation concludes with recommendation for spell checking in CALL. 

Online Assessment in First-year Language Courses
Claire Bartlett
Emilie Dejonckheere
We will first show samples of first year French online quizzes, tests, midterms, and final exams and then discuss findings about students’ progress and the use of this type of assessment. Using ExTemplate and Wimba, students take several online speaking quizzes, and three online tests. All four language skills are assessed in each of the tests. At the end of the first year sequence, students representing various levels are selected to take the Oral Proficiency Interviews (OPIs). The interview results are then used to determine the average OPI levels of students at the end of the first year sequence.

 Making the Right Choice: Interactive Simulations for Language Learning and Cultural Immersion
John Vitaglione
Giving learners the opportunity to make choices can engage them in first-person learn-by-doing experiences. Decision points offer choices that all are attractive for one reason or another but result in branching storylines with different outcomes, some rewarding and some not. This presentation will demonstrate how the Language Acquisition Resource Center (LARC) at San Diego State University is integrating authentic digital resources from their Digital Media Archive (DMA) in interactive simulations that provide different learning outcomes based on learner decisions. Discussion will include how LARC incorporates such simulations in their web pages and online/distance education courses for language learning and cultural immersion.

 

11:00 – 11:20

 A Discussion on Courseware Structures
Jing Luo
This presentation intends to examine the structures of a few courseware packages from the perspectives of teaching and theoretical considerations. Having written a few software reviews, the presenter realizes that, while there is no consensus on the ideal design of a courseware, there is obvious sensitivity to imperfection. For example, there are programs that excel in content presentation, but somehow fail to provide users with the opportunity to save their progress, so that they have to start all over again the next time around, often having to tumble over the same barriers that they had somehow previously managed to overcome. In addition to the global structural issues, cases such as algorithms of exercises will also be discussed. The discussion would hopefully direct courseware designers to a few tips for better construction and definitely to questions that remain unanswered.

 Beyond the Politics of Technology-enhanced ELT
Mikyong Kim
The issue of equity in ELT becomes necessary to take into account, as English and technology competence have become key factors to determine access to power. The dominant discourse of English and technology in Korea has played great roles as essential elements of criteria in the process of university admission, and so forth. As a result, the current ELT at schools has the potential to constitute the maintenance of the existing power stratification as those who have capital economically, socially, and symbolically can become capable of the skills in various ways. This presentation analyzes the politics of ELT and technology from a social perspective.

 Integrated Chinese Supplemental Listening Exercise with HTML User Interface
Limin Zheng
The presentation discusses the importance of listening exercise in early stages of language learning. It demonstrates a listening exercise supplementing the increasingly popular textbook Integrated Chinese. The exercise consists of three parts corresponding to the three textbooks of Integrated Chinese. There are altogether 43 lessons, each containing an average of four listening passages with a set of comprehension questions for each passage. All these are packaged and linked by an HTML-based user interface. JavaScripts are used to incorporate features such as an embedded media player bar for playing and mouse over for displaying comprehension questions to help the user.

Variations in Time Spent Working and Students’ Online Behavior in the Chansons de la francophonie Web Activities
Alysse Weinberg
Analysis of web-tracking data from a language listening activity web site will be presented. The web-tracking system captured the amount of time students worked at their activity web pages. Research queries were made into the data to explore web behavior differences, mainly between the diligent versus the less diligent students, but also between day and evening students and between male and female students. The web site, the course, the students, and characteristics of the eChanson web tracking system and a few typical web navigation patterns for some students will also be described. 

Audio Portfolios in an IEP Classroom
Lis Wilson
Anne Todd
Presenters will demonstrate varied uses of how a user-friendly, browser-contained recording tool, Audio Portfolios, that can be used to address individual language needs of beginning-level students in an IEP class. The presentation will demonstrate how a relatively simple tool can be used creatively with current pedagogy in mind to maximize benefits without requiring instructors and students to spend time on learning new technology. The presenters will also address how technology can contribute to individualized learning plans–motivating students, personalizing learning, and encouraging students to take more responsibility for their own learning.

Instructional Design Solutions for Development of Template-based Web Pages
Zenon Obydzinski
Pamela Combacau
CALL developers often face time constraints that significantly limit their ability to develop high-quality materials on time. The offered template-based solution uses two templates: data collection and user interface. The subject matter experts use the first template to enter all target language data (texts, questions, feedback, etc.) to create an XML document. The user-interface template uses this XML file to generate the final product, which can be viewed using a web browser such as Internet Explorer. The presenters will discuss instructional design issues created by this approach and provide solutions for them. 

Blended Language Learning: From Concept to Operational Learning Environment with Cognistreamer and Idioma-tic
Piet Desmet
Blended language learning is not just another buzz word, but very much a useful concept inviting CALL practitioners to realize a balanced mix of electronic learning and classroom or conventional learning. Its implementation has become more feasible thanks to different recent tendencies in the CALL field (concerning learning activities, interaction, electronic environment, and learning organization). To illustrate the concept we present an integrated language-learning environment, which has been operational for more than a year. It was developed with our authoring tool Idioma-tic and brought together within our learning management system Cognistreamer. Finally, we have been using our multimedia language lab for all e-learning activities.

 11:30 – 11:50

 A Human-computer Interaction Study of Data-driven Learning
J. Scott Payne
Sidharth Sharma
Joey Lee
Data-driven learning is an approach to language instruction that encourages learners to test their hypotheses about the target language and acquire linguistic knowledge through discovery. The study presented uses behavior-tracking data to examine the relationship between reported instructional requirements (type of language course and tasks required as a part of instruction) and data-driven learning tool use. A corpus-based reference tool, the KWICionary, served as the context for this study. Questionnaire and behavior-tracking data were used to investigate patterns of use over time and relationships between course and task type. Implications for L2 pedagogy and CALL tool design are discussed. 

The Effect of Visual Advance Organizers and Animation on ESL Learners’ Reading Comprehension of Content-based Material
Huifen Lin
Tsuiping Chen
The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of two types of visual advance organizers, descriptive and question, in complementing animated instruction in EFL settings. 120 EFL learners were randomly assigned to respective treatments. Immediately after receiving their respective treatment, students received four criterion tests (Dwyer, 1977). Results indicated that experimental groups performed better than the control group; however, no significant difference was found between treatment groups. The researchers conclude that advance organizers are an important instructional variable for complementing animated instruction; however, all types of advance organizers are not equally effective in facilitating achievement of content-based knowledge.

Movie Trailers and the Past Tenses in French
Hélène Ossipov
The past tenses in French are difficult for anglophone students because the difference in choice of tenses is aspectual, that is, one visualizes the action differently. However, much of the teaching materials for these tenses use still images rather than video. By using the notion of visualizing the action, I will discuss using movie trailers, available online, to teach the appropriate past tenses in French. The advantage to using movie trailers is that the material is always new, easily available on the internet, and the trailers provide students with a common view of the action to be discussed.

Adapted Feedback in CALL Programs: A Teaching Tool that Informs and Motivates Learners
Shimona Kushner
Maria Yelenevsky
The Technion-Israel Institute of Technology develops CALL material in EFL for science and technology students. Years of experimentation and student observation have convinced us that feedback is a crucial aspect of the independent CALL learning experience. Our feedback attempts to imitate the kind of assistance students would get from a teacher in the classroom and aims to increase their ability to comprehend texts in their disciplines. The paper presents examples of CALL material and related feedback. The ideas behind the exercises will be discussed. Types of exercises that lend themselves to such feedback, and that do not, will also be presented. 

Extending the “Lernort” to a Virtual Learning Environment: Bauhaus in Chicago
Ingrid Zeller
Denise M. Meuser
Franziska Lys
In this talk, the presenters will explore the intersection between an authentic learning site, a “Lernort”, the classroom setting, and virtual reality. They will show how technology has allowed them to extend the idea of “Lernort” to a virtual environment comprised of 8-10 video films focusing on culturally and architecturally significant sites in Chicago. The interactive learning module was produced for language learners of German and contains online exercises to encourage interaction with new linguistic material in order to solidify the understanding of the cultural and architectural information presented in the films.

How Does the Use of Intranet Instructional Materials Affect Learning Results of Students
Machiko Horiuchi
This study investigates how students majoring in English at a Japanese university perceive intranet English programs and how their English proficiency changes with the use of those programs. 

E-education in Context
Snea Thinsan
As extensively “electronicized” as it is nowadays, our world is invaded by the “e” in all aspects. E-Thailand, initiated under a broader e-ASEAN scheme, reflects such an inevitable move at the national level due to the regional and global forces. But is the jump well justified? What are the traps? What do we educators have to say? Taking the e-Thailand as a case, I will examine and critique its five-pillar IT2010 Master Plan, which includes e-government, e-commerce, e-industry, e-education, and e-society, with a strong emphasis on e-education. Recommendations to the Thai government, which applies in global contexts, will be shared. 

2:00 – 2:45

 Video Dubbing as a Foreign Language Learning Activity for Beginning-level Students: Theory and Practice
Jack Burston
The purpose of this presentation is to address major pedagogical and technical issues related to the use of video dubbing in the foreign language curriculum. Pedagogically, muted video clips offer an excellent opportunity to develop the linguistic skills of foreign language learners while fostering creativity in a collaborative learner-centered environment. While highly motivating to students, video dubbing raises numerous practical technical issues. Specifically, instructors (no less than students) need to learn the basics of digital video editing. Undoubtedly, the greatest practical challenge of all is how to exploit technology without allowing it to dominate the curriculum. 

Working in the Global Language Online Support System (GLOSS): Developing and Using Online Listening Materials for Foreign Language Learning
Steve Koppany
Richard Mayer
Carlos Iturrino
Youngsook Kim
There is a critical need today for interactive listening comprehension (LC) learning materials using available technology and authentic materials to enhance foreign language learning. The need is especially great for advanced learning materials. The Defense Language Institute has developed an authoring tool, the “Generator,” to produce online mini-lessons without the need for programming skills. We will briefly introduce the GLOSS project and demonstrate how to creatively and innovatively develop LC lessons using Generator templates, as well as how to use these lessons as part of a syllabus. Also, we will discuss how to maintain and enhance the underlying programming tool.

The Language Center:A Crucial Academic Resource?
Joel Goldfield
As older language labs are retired, some school administrators and faculty are wrestling with the question of whether to replace them with generic computer ones supplemented by textbook’s software packages. Might students simply use publishers’ self-paced materials on a classroom or home computer? What are the trends arguing for and against language labs and their successors? Are there enough trained professionals to staff them? This presentation encourages audience participation and will serve as a metastudy on online professional discussions, MLA statistics, regional surveys, and published materials from the CALICO Journal, the Chronicle of Higher Education, and the IALLT Journal. 

Task-based Approaches for Foreign Language Learning and Language Processing in the U.S. Military
Steve LaRocca
Sherri Bellinger
Task-based approaches are common to foreign language teaching methodology, to the development of speech translation systems, and to the evaluation of classical text-to-text machine translation systems. The benefits offered by such approaches, for example, more focused language instruction, advanced speech translation systems, and improved machine translation would seem to be compelling. Still, considerable difficulties exist in anticipating and modeling with precision the tasks involving bilingual communication that are of immediate benefit to current military operations. This presentation recounts efforts to catalog tasks and demonstrates how dialog modeling is being applied to language learning as well as translation systems.

Learner Profiles for Online Learning Environments
Trude Heift
In this presentation, we will describe a study on learner profiles. Based on frequent performance assessments, learner profiles typically contain information about the learner’s progress. In online learning environments, learner profiles are generally sparse because they have to persist across sessions (visits) in order for them to be useful to the learner. In the Spring semester 2004, we conducted a study with 87 learners of German to investigate how learners’ study habits are affected by a learner profile that can be inspected by the user. Our study indicates that students utilize and are positively influenced by the information contained in their learner profile.

Language Across the Curriculum: A Case for Computer-assisted Needs Analysis
Marina Dodigovic
Needs analysis is essential to a successful course design in English for academic or specific purposes (EAP/ESP). In the past, this kind of analysis required a labor intensive approach, which was unfortunately not always applied rigorously. Nowadays, however, it has become increasingly convenient to conduct such analysis with the aid of computer. Moreover, the method used truly epitomizes the original purpose of the computer as a reliable and, above all, labor saving device. This paper showcases such analysis, especially its accuracy, demonstrating in addition how easy it is to implement with the present day technology.

Field Dependence/Independence: How Do Students Perform in Web-based Listening Activities?
Monica Stella Cárdenas-Claros
The purpose of this presentation is to explore how the cognitive styles of field dependence/independence (FD/FI) relate to performance in CALL-based listening exercises. To serve this purpose, a set of listening exercises that Academic Listening Online (ALO) web site (Cardenas-Claros, 2004) features, were used. To classify students into the FD/ FI traits, a 30-item questionnaire that measures this construct when related to CALL, was designed and validated. The help aids (transcripts/dictionary) and the media tools (audio/video) preferred by learners using ALO along with the sequence students follow to perform the different listening activities in ALO will be described. Conclusions and suggestions for further research will be provided.

3:00 – 3:45

 How Valuable is CALL Preparation in MA Programs?
Greg Kessler
The presenter will share research results addressing the following questions. What is the perceived value of CALL as a component of MA programs that prepare language teachers? To what extent are these programs preparing teachers to make effective decisions about their use of CALL? What is the perceived value of this training? Should CALL be an integral component of teacher preparation programs? What can we do to better meet teachers’ needs?

A Role-based Theoretical Framework for CALL
Philip Hubbard
This presentation introduces a theoretical framework for CALL, originally developed to characterize CALL teacher education, based on elements of institutional and functional roles. Institutional roles include teachers (both pre-service and in-service), specialists (having depth in one domain), and professionals (combining depth and breadth across a number of domains). Functional roles include practitioners, developers, and researchers. The presenter outlines the role combinations and other major elements of the framework, notably the distinctions between technical knowledge and skills and pedagogical knowledge and skills. He then provides examples of how the specification of these has consequences for CALL research and theory.

The Audio Aspect of Our Multimedia World
Tamas Marius
Developing and producing listening exercises for our multimedia environment including the internet and the importance of using the right delivery methods and formats for audio materials are the focus of this presentation. Choosing the right software capable of producing products that allow the effective, combined use of PCs, SmartBoards, laptops, CD and MP3 players, and the Internet will be discussed. Coping with limitations of bandwidth and the consequential delays in delivering audio through the internet will also be discussed. The presenter will also talk about methods and available recording software to produce high-quality audio on a low budget.

Courseware Development SIG: Publishers Roundtable
Helene Greenwood
Laurel Miller
Sherry Preiss
Scott Tinetti
Howard Pomann
Natalia Carro
The Courseware Development Special Interest Group will present a Publisher’s Roundtable in which publishers will briefly present their views on future CALL software development, teacher/researcher involvement (royalty and consulting opportunities), and technology issues. Opportunities and challenges for faculty wishing to develop and publish software will be highlighted. The discussion will then be opened up to CALICO members to share their questions and comments with the panel. Panelists will include representatives from textbook publishers.

Prospects for an Online Language Textbook with Intelligent Feedback
Noriko Nagata
The author has been using an intelligent language tutor program, Robo-Sensei, to supplement a standard Japanese textbook. With Robo-Sensei, students can type in Japanese sentences and receive detailed grammatical feedback directly. If such an intelligent tutor program is expanded to a stand-alone online textbook, it will no longer be necessary to coordinate a regular printed textbook with computer materials. Language learning could become more interactive and flexible as a result. This paper discusses the prospects for an artificial intelligence online textbook, addresses the critical needs such an online textbook would meet, and demonstrates a sample module of the proposed textbook.

Student-led Multimedia CD development: Does IT Make a Difference?
Malcolm Field
Students utilized their own themes to develop CD-ROMs in this ongoing study conducted in a Japanese university communication course, which was predominantly taught in English. Initial findings suggest that students felt the development of the CDs did not assist oral language competency. Students argued that the CDs aided writing and reading L2 competency, and acknowledged that the L2 pedagogy improved listening comprehension. Students believed that their knowledge of the content increased during the process and stated that the need to learn and use IT design skills was beneficial. Students encountered difficulty with “group” processes, bringing new insight into cultural processes. 

Paper to Web: Supporting Change in the LMC
Sharon Scinicariello
When all but 2 of 42 senior language majors in 2004 preferred to submit paper versions of their required portfolios, it was clear that the department needed to become proactive in moving students to e-portfolios. This presentation describes the development of a support system in the language media center for the creation of web-based portfolios. It details how two key challenges were addressed: the seniors’ lack of computing skills and the implementation of Macromedia’s Contribute in the LMC. It concludes with a discussion of proposed changes in both the LMC and the curriculum to promote the move to the web.

4:00 – 4:45

 A Critical Need: Developing Proficiency Tasks in LCTLs Based on Materials Gleaned from the Web
Deniz Gokcora
Proficiency is a buzz word when we consider teaching of foreign languages. In less commonly taught languages, this term has even more ambiguous levels of meaning. The presentation will provide exemplary proficiency-based test tasks in a variety of less commonly taught languages based on materials gleaned from the web. The Internet exposes many opportunities to teachers to create tasks in reading, writing, listening, and speaking, using authentic texts and also stimulate instructors to create meaningful and student-centered test questions. Example tasks and test items will be in English as well as in Norwegian, Chinese, Japanese, Arabic, and Turkish. 

Fewer Teachers, Higher Standards: Where Does Technology Figure In?
Kathryn Murphy-Judy
In this panel discussion, well-known teacher educators discuss the role of technology in teacher education and professional development: from how to use technology in the classroom to using it to improve oneself. We will also consider the impact of technology standards for teacher education, licensure, and eventually professional development (e.g., National Board Certification). Just how and where does technology have a positive effect on preparing, recruiting and retaining foreign language teachers in the schools? How and where does it hinder? What can teacher educators do to make technology a win-win situation for future teachers? 

Co-Construction of Meaning in a Synchronous CMC Environment
Claudia Kost
The use of communication strategies in a CMC environment has only been explored in a few studies (Chun, 1994; Smith, 2003) which suggest that task-based activities promote the use of communication strategies. By analyzing transcripts from weekly chat sessions of beginning learners of German, the present study investigates how learners make use of communication strategies while doing role plays and how they co-construct meaning and negotiate interactions when they experience communication problems in a synchronous CMC environment.

Continuation of Courseware Development SIG: Publishers Roundtable
Helene Greenwood
Laurel Miller
Sherry Preiss
Scott Tinetti
Howard Pomann
Natalia Carro
The Courseware Development Special Interest Group will present a Publisher’s Roundtable in which publishers will briefly present their views on future CALL software development, teacher/researcher involvement (royalty and consulting opportunities), and technology issues. Opportunities and challenges for faculty wishing to develop and publish software will be highlighted. The discussion will then be opened up to CALICO members to share their questions and comments with the panel. Panelists will include representatives from textbook publishers.

What Happens When You Unplug the Audio Console? Making Online Speech Possible
Jeff Magoto
Jim Duber
When it comes to speech, language teachers and lab directors alike have decried the lack of options for web-based instruction. Determined not to repeat the same mistakes of the “console” era, considerable interest is coalescing around speech and video-based tools that are nonproprietary and relatively simple for teachers to create content with. This demonstration focuses on how we have used Flash Communications Server to build several web-based speech (and video) tools and how they are currently being used in language instruction at the University of Oregon. The tools include: a virtual tape recorder, a message board, and a quiz/survey maker.

The Challenges of Learning and Sharing Knowledge of an LCTL in the 21st Century
John Kovarik
The 21st century has dawned with the critical need for us all to build better bridges of understanding with the languages and cultures of many less commonly taught languages from Dari to the languages of the Southern Philippines. I demonstrate how the development of a Mongolian morphological analyzer, parser, and generator for Khalka Mongolian served the dual purpose of enhancing my own language skills and building user-friendly and shareable tools to support language learning for other linguistically adept language learners desiring to bridge the gap between Mongolia and the West. Each computational tool is correlated with impact on language learning.

Sens-it System Approach to CALL
James R. Nord
This session will provide a theoretical framework for programming mastery learning CALL courseware and provide a demonstration of modules that illustrate and operationally define various portions of the theoretical framework. The Sens-it system provides a way of looking at language and language acquisition in an operational manner, one that can easily be demonstrated with a computer. This session is closely related to my “From TALL to CALL” presentation and participation in both would have a synergetic effect, but they are both designed to be independent presentations with little overlap.