2003 Thursday Sessions


Conference Presentations
Day One: May 22, 2003


10:00 – 10:45 

Students’ Behaviors in a Multimedia Application in Relation to Their Learning and Cognitive/Personality Styles
Fenfang Hwu
This study investigates the relationship between students’ usage of a multimedia-based application and their learning styles (visual, auditory, kinesthetic, tactile, group learning, individual learning). It also investigates the relationship between their patterns of the use of the application and their cognitive/personality styles. To identify students’ performance styles or task orientations, the data of the students’ usage of the application are collected through computer-aided tracking for analysis. These usage patterns are then compared with the following data to draw implications for instructional decisions and program modifications: students’ performance in pretest and posttest, students’ self-report surveys about learning and cognitive/personality styles, and classroom observation of students’ behaviors.

CALL, What’s It Good For?
Jing Luo
This paper will present an overview of the research work that has been conducted in the field of CALL over the past 5 years. The goal is to identify strengths and weaknesses of CALL with respect to the training of the four language skills. The research projects to be examined are selected from a wide range of CALL journals. The presentation will also introduce latest research topics and trends.

An Online Language Course for University Students–Do They Collaborate?
Mathias Schulze
This paper discusses the methods and first results of two learning impact studies which were conducted for two successive online language courses (German 101, German 102) as part of the Geroline project in Fall 2002 and Winter 2003. The aim of the Geroline project is the creation of two online distance education courses for elementary German. The learning impact studies, however, were carried out with two groups of on-campus students so that intermittent direct contact with the learners was possible. Data were gathered through questionnaires and interviews, and student-student and student-instructor interaction on message boards in chat rooms was recorded.

Constructivism and Online Professional Development: A Study of the Beliefs and Practices of Four Foreign Language Teachers
Katya Koubek
This session will report on a multiple case research study that investigated four in-service teachers’ instructional practices, beliefs, and reflectivity in an online constructivist professional development course. Data were collected through extensive, multiple sources of information, including interviews, online observations, teacher narratives, course documents, and email communication between and among the course participants and instructors. The findings offer important insights and information for online professional development as well as all distance education courses.

The Design of a 3D Gaming System: Adopting Indigenous Taiwanese Legends to an English Listening Course
Kuan-Lin Liu
Hsiao-I Hou
We are witnessing two important trends in Taiwan. First, the demand for English learning is becoming greater and greater in Asian countries. Second, computer gaming has become a greatly concerned industry attracting many young people in the past few years. This project aims to combine these two trends by integrating Taiwanese aboriginal legends with computer gaming elements. By using 3D CALL systems delivering the legends, we wish to bring about English learning by imposing users with gaming mechanism. A questionnaire probing students’ reactions and their EFL learning will be constructed. In addition, oral interviews related to teachers’ perceptions of student motivation will be conducted.

Pedagogy In the Machine–Template-Driven Development
Bobby Lee
Youngsook Kim
Eunji Lee
Technology in the classroom is not about hardware; it is about taking advantage of innovations in technology to maximize the learning experience. Using technology is not about digitization to accommodate the hardware; it is about creating materials ideally suited for the ever expanding classroom. This session will examine customized versus template-driven development of online materials. It will showcase the Learning Object Generator a tool which allows content developers to create fully interactive, methodologically sound lessons without any knowledge of programming. Real-world examples and an objective comparison of the two development processes will be presented.

11:00 – 11:45 

The Design and Implementation of a Web-based Placement Test: A French Prototype
Jack Burston
Monique Burston
Charlotte Kleis
This talk describes the design and implementation of a web-based test which assesses the grammatical knowledge, reading comprehension, and listening comprehension skills of students for placement into beginner and intermediate level language courses. While the test prototype was implemented for French, its design is equally applicable to other languages. The test exploits FrontPage to allow nonprogrammers to create a language placement instrument that (a) permits input formats other than simple multiple choice, (b) supports audio playback in both questions and responses, (c) introduces an element of communicative interaction, and (d) centrally stores data on student scores as well as question responses.

E-Learning Courseware Development Tools
Marmo Soemarmo
Major software companies such as Macromedia and Adobe recognize the growing demands from companies and educational institutions for tools that trainers and educators can learn with a reasonable learning curve and time. This presentation will evaluate the following tools: (a) Authorware Knowledge Objects, (b) Dreamweaver Course Builder, and (c) Flash Learning Interactions. The evaluation is based on the following criteria: (a) learning curve, (b) number of activities, and (c) consistency across browsers and platforms. As a comparison, a brief description of online tools will also be included: (a) Hot Potatoes, (b) Coursemaker, and (c) the presenter’s templates.

Dynamically Generated Help in CALL
Trude Heift
During this talk I will present an innovative CALL program that provides error-specific feedback coupled with individualized help options for grammar and vocabulary practice. In case of an error, the E-Tutor provides error-contingent feedback at different levels of specificity depending on the learner’s current skill level. In addition to its parsing functionality, the E-Tutor dynamically generates context-sensitive and individualized help features. As a result, each learner progresses through the CALL system in a highly individualized way. The E-Tutor has been tested with language learners, and data on the use of a variety of help features in CALL will be discussed during the presentation.

Interacting in a Virtual Language Learning Environment–What Do Users Really Do?
Qing Zhang
David Lord
In research about MOO environments for foreign language learning, much attention is paid to pedagogical concepts such as autonomous, tandem, collaborative, and constructive learning often taking place in highly structured learning situations. This paper reports investigations into users’ spontaneous behavior in this virtual reality in order to find out what users do when they are not supervised by teachers or restricted to set language learning assignments. Very basic concepts of human computer interaction are explored, to discover users’ perceptions of MOO, their habits in MOO environments, and the underlying reasons for their behavior.

What’s the Multi in a Multimedia Lab
Keith Boeckner
The presentation will explore the many avenues open to language teachers using a multimedia language laboratory, from more traditional exercises to web-resourced activities. Practical examples of work done in a multimedia lab will be presented. These involve language lab software functions, office applications, and the Internet. In addition to individual work assignments, collaborative activities will be highlighted. The presenter will share comments from students on their participation and teachers’ reactions (positive and negative) to using a computerized environment.

A Theoretical Argument for CMC-based Tandem Learning
Breffni O’Rourke
Theoretical grounding for tandem language learning has for the most part drawn on pedagogical constructs such as learner autonomy and the communicative approach. This paper makes an argument which is compatible, but of a different kind. It begins by deriving three pedagogical principles from a model of instructed second language acquisition in which metalinguistic reflection plays a central role and a Vygotskian perspective on learning dialogue. It then considers the relationship between written language and metalinguistic awareness and concludes that a real-time, text-based tandem exchange offers an ideal environment in which to implement such a pedagogy.

2:30 – 3:15

 ADA Compliance and Web Design
Scott Despain
Tom Zelickman
Section 508 establishes requirements for electronic and information technology developed, maintained, procured, or used by the Federal government. Section 508 requires Federal electronic and information technology to be accessible to people with disabilities, including employees and members of the public. This presentation will provide background on legislation, litigation, and the struggles associated with achieving or staying ADA compliant. Assistive technologies will also be demonstrated, as well as strategies for dealing with issues specific to foreign language instruction.

Developing Oral and Written Proficiency Through Synchronous Computer-mediated Communication
Claudia Kost
Studies in CMC (Beauvois, 1998; Payne & Whitney, 2002) have suggested that oral proficiency can be enhanced by synchronous online discussions. This study investigated the effects of CMC on the development of oral and written proficiency of beginning learners of German. The presenter will report findings regarding participants’ proficiency levels after one semester of instruction as well as pre- and posttreatment data from oral interviews and in-class writings regarding specific linguistic features. In-depth analyses of the use of communication strategies in the oral interviews and of written interlanguage (displayed in the chapter exams) will be the focus of this presentation.

Collaboration Among CALL Developers, Teachers, and Students: Necessary or Desirable?
Joan Jamieson
Carol A. Chapelle
Sherry Preiss
We examine the collaboration among CALL developers, teachers, and students. To what degree do these groups share views about a CALL course? In attempting to answer this question, interviews and surveys will be conducted among developers and publishers, school administrators and teachers, and students about one CALL course, Longman English Online. Opinions will be elicited regarding six evaluative criteria described by Chapelle (2001): language learning potential, learner fit, meaning focus, authenticity, practicality, and impact. Results will allow us to compare the perspectives among developers, teachers, and students. In CALL, these groups of people always collaborate–but should they always agree?

On the Notion of “Teach-nology:” Redefining the Teacher-Student Relationship in CALL
Sébastien Dubreil
Culture is the core, the source of the Foreign Language (FL) curriculum, its spine. Scholars have shown that multimedia technologies have the potential to provide effective ways to teach culture in the FL classroom because it is contextualized, meaningful, and enjoyable and can foster student-centered approaches to teaching. In this respect, the advent of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is an invitation to redefine the role of the teacher and learner in the FL classroom. This presentation offers suggestions on how teaching can embrace technology and become a “teach-nology” and thus how teachers can redefine their own teaching with these new tools.


Adapting a Web-based Multimedia Instructional Program to Enhance a Classroom-based TPR-Storytelling Curriculum
Lathrop P. Johnson
In what ways can an existing online elementary language course supplement a new college course using TPR-Storytelling? This paper describes the way in which the Goethe Institute’s “Lina und Leo” program was successfully adopted as the “main text” for a two semester course. Student usage of the online materials, technical adaptations for the classroom, and student attitudes and accomplishments will be discussed. Participants will receive a checklist of helpful and not-so-helpful components in web-based courses when used with classroom TPR-S courses. Suggestions will also be given for the reverse process: multimedia components which could be designed specifically for TPR-S courses.

Teaching Language and Culture Online in a Work Environment
Delphine Renié
Carmen Zafiu
The Canadian Foreign Service Institute started offering online courses to its employees and to employees of other government departments in January 2000. Providing online courses has allowed us to train employees working in Canadian embassies throughout the world, most of whom are locally engaged staff. For most of these employees, Canada’s official languages (French and English) are foreign languages that carry foreign values and references. The various online courses that we offer attempt to convey a better knowledge of these values and references. Moreover, students performing the learning tasks are exposed to linguistic variations, both social (at the discourse level) and regional. Our courses are based on authentic and work-related documents. First, we will show how these culturally marked documents have been selected and exploited so as to enhance the learning of language and culture. Secondly, we will emphasize the role of the teacher in reinforcing the cultural content of the material through corrective feedback and informal interaction with students.

3:30 – 4:15

Technoconstructivism in the Foreign Language Classroom
Edwina Spodark
In the past twenty years, constructivist pedagogy has been progressively applied in classrooms around the world and has begun to transform the learning environment. With its emphasis on meaningful learning that is “active, constructive, intentional, authentic and cooperative,” constructivism puts students at the center of the learning experience. The incorporation of computer technology into the classroom combined with a constructivist method promotes a new approach to the teaching of foreign languages: technoconstructivism. Technocon-structivism shifts the emphasis from teachers teaching with technology to students learning with technology and fosters a dynamic cultural and language learning experience.

Monitoring Bilingualism: Pedagogical Implications of the Bilingual Tandem Analyser
Klaus Schwienhorst
Tandem learning brings together learners with complementary L1/L2 combinations (e.g., an Irish learner of German and a German learner of English). A recurrent problem in tandem learning is that the more proficient L2 becomes the exclusive language of communication. The Bilingual Tandem Analyser is a tool for synchronous text-based environments (MOOs) that allows students and teachers to monitor their bilingualism. This paper will first give an overview of tandem learning and learner autonomy; second, explain the principles behind the Bilingual Tandem Analyser; and third, describe its pedagogical implementation and evaluate its effectiveness for the creation of more balanced tandem partnerships.

Learning to E-learn: The New Roles of the Language Learner
Maija Tammelin
In this paper, I will first argue that language learners in network-based learning environments need to be taught “learning to e-learn” skills in a systematic way. Just giving instructions on how to use the technical facilities or online platforms is not enough. Drawing from my own research embedded in the context of Finnish business students (i.e., nonnative speakers of English) studying in English business communication courses, I will discuss what these e-learning metaskills might be. In conclusion, based on my research-based framework of the e-learner’s changing roles, I will give recommendations for various types of e-learner training in language education.

Enhance EFL Learners’ Reading Competence with Computer Technologies
Howard Hao-Jan Chen
This paper introduces an innovative computer-assisted reading environment for EFL learners. This environment tries to incorporate various technologies and resources. It contains the following modules: (a) diagnostic vocabulary levels tests, (b) a collection of web sites offering suitable readings, (c) a web forum for sharing readings, (d) a vocabulary analyzer, (e) online dictionaries, (f) online concordancers, (g) an online POS tagger, (h) an online machine translation service, (i) a speech synthesizer, (j) an online automatic summary system, (k) an automatic quiz generator, and (l) an online discussion board. College students’ reactions toward these tools and resources were discussed in detail. 

Verb Production by Students of German in Chatroom and Face-to-Face Discussions
Olaf Böhlke
This presentation highlights results from two studies. Both studies focus on verb production by intermediate level students of German, comparing chatroom discourse with face-to-face discourse. In the first study, small groups of students described a picture in the present tense, while students in the second study had to narrate the fairy tale of Little Red Riding Hood in the narrative past tense (imperfect). The results suggest that students make fewer mistakes in the chatroom environment than they do in the face-to-face discussions.

4:30 – 5:15

Effects of L1 and L2 Glosses on Incidental Vocabulary Learning: Will Pictures Make a Difference?
Makoto Yoshii
This study compared the effects of L1 and L2 glosses on incidental vocabulary learning using an Internet-based reading text. The study also examined whether the addition of image to each gloss type would make a difference on the effects. Five types of glosses were used for the investigation: (a) L1 text only, (b) L2 text only, (c) picture only, (d) the combination of L1 text and picture, and (e) the combination of L2 text and picture. The experiment was conducted with 150 Japanese university students using different types of vocabulary tests including both immediate and delayed measures.

Automatic Feedback for CALL Using NLP
Joel Martin
Edina Torlakovic
We describe a natural language processing (NLP) method to determine whether a specific language example or a student response is acceptable. Specifically, our system automatically judges whether the position of an adverb in an English sentence is acceptable. However, the system is applicable to many other grammatical aspects. We argue that such NLP judgments must be accurate in order to be used for positive and negative feedback in CALL systems; and we demonstrate very high accuracy for our approach. The use of NLP allows for faster CALL development, less expert involvement, and a virtually unlimited number of language examples.

CALL in Action–Does It Really Produce Better Results?
Uwe Wilhelm
When the notion of CALL was first conceived IT proponents were clear about one thing: the use of IT must show to have superior results over conventional methods. In 1997 Acadia University introduced a program that would see every student equipped with a laptop, the campus completely wired, and professors urged to include IT into their teaching. Looking back on more than 10 years of language instruction with and without the use of IT, the impact in terms of learning outcomes that the introduction of CALL has had can be shown.

Testing Speech Perception the Multimodal and Multimedia Way
Carmit Romano-Hvid
This paper will discuss testing methods applied in a CALL study that investigated the acquisition of the phonology of English as a foreign language. A number of testing methods, which make use of audio, orthography, and phonemic symbols in various combinations to test speech perception, were developed. In some of the tests, the students were tested for discrimination and identification of phoneme sounds by ear and in others for recognition of symbols corresponding to phoneme sounds. This resulted in the two-modality effect. The results obtained indicated that the modalities in which the stimuli were presented had an effect on test scores.

Interactivity in Online Courses
Dana Paramskas
One important debate related to web-based online courses centers on the role of the instructor and the quality of the interaction between the instructor and the students. Interaction can take many forms: class bulletins, asynchronous conferences, email, and tests (including design of tests and feedback). It is often taken for granted that any good classroom teacher can be a good web-based teacher. There are, however, skills involved in interaction which must be developed before effective interactivity can occur consistently. This presentation centers on the skills an instructor needs for successful interaction with students in online courses.

Teacher Training in Technology-assisted Language Learning
Shannon Hilliker
Sabrina Johnson-Taylor
Chi-Hua Tseng
Jieun You
This presentation describes a training course in technology-assisted language learning (TALL) for in-service ESOL teachers. This institute explored the effective use of technologies in the language classroom including the one-computer, web-resourced software-integrated, and telecommunications classroom. This session examines the content and outcomes of the teacher training experience.