Collaboration, Ubiquitous Computing and the Future of Language Teaching
Greg Kessler is a Professor of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) in the Department of Linguistics and Director of the Language Resource Center at Ohio University. He teaches CALL teacher preparation and research methods courses. His research addresses CALL teacher preparation, teacher and student language use in collaborative constructivist language learning, the role of students and teachers in innovative pedagogical contexts, student and teacher autonomy, and the relationship between technology and change in the English language. He has published widely in the area of CALL and has given invited talks around the world. He was the CALL IS chair for the teachers of English to speakers of other languages (TESOL) from 2003-2004 and president of Ohio TESOL from 2007-2008. He is currently interim co-director CALICO and editor of the Action Research Column for Language Learning & Technology.
10:00am – 10:45am
Rapport Management in Conversation Closings: L2 Socialization in Livemocha
Adrienne Gonzales, University of New Mexico
This presentation will report the results of a dissertation discussing seven longitudinal case studies of Spanish language learners’ participation in Livemocha. It will focus on the closings of these learners’ text-based synchronous conversations and the politeness strategies employed during their interactions in this environment. Using a conversation analytical approach to the data, this project seeks to reveal the evolution of learner politeness strategies over time, the effect of learner perception of this online community, and native speaker influence on language learners. This presentation will conclude with a discussion of the implications of this technology in classroom and independent language learning.
Telenovelas in the Classroom? Yo soy Betty, la fea as a Text for Intermediate Spanish Language and Culture
Harold Hendricks, Brigham Young University
Paul Sebastian, Brigham Young University
Mayavel Amado, Brigham Young University
Authentic language and culture is introduced to second year students through a pilot program at Brigham Young University using the popular telenovela Yo soy Betty, la fea. Supporting content and classroom methodology for both a standard four-skills class and a conversation class will be described. The custom player used to create the playlists and then present the video and annotations will also be demonstrated and is of interest to others besides Spanish instructors.
Online Strategy Instruction for Teaching Knowledge of English Word Patterns as a Complex Cognitive Skill
Jim Ranalli, Iowa State University
This project involves the development of a CALL resource combining a novel goal with an innovative means of achieving it. The goal is to establish L2 learners’ knowledge of English word patterns (Hunston, Francis, & Manning, 1997) in the form of a complex cognitive skill, which integrates conceptual understanding with related text-analysis and dictionary referencing skills to facilitate self-directed use and learning of these common lexical features. The method of instruction is an automated, online form of strategy training that can be delivered outside of class time, facilitating self-paced learning with sufficient practice and feedback.
Open Language Learning: How it Should and Why it Won’t Work
Jozef Colpaert, University of Antwerp
Content development for language learning and teaching, especially for CALL (courseware), is far too labor-intensive. Language learners, teachers, CALL practitioners and researchers will agree that content should be more generic, reusable, authorable, exchangeable, portable, sustainable and … open. Educational software development on the other hand has seen the emergence of Open-Source systems such as Moodle, Big Blue Button, OpenSis and ExeLearning, which have gained momentum but have not completely broken through yet. In the same vein, recent content-related phenomena such as Open-Source Learning, Open Educational Resources, the Open Data movement and the Open Knowledge Foundation might offer more advantages than expected for the CALL community.
The Use of Blended Learning in an Intensive English Program Writing Course: Teacher and Student Perspectives
Jacob E. Larsen, Iowa State University
Blended Learning (BL) is becoming increasingly popular at colleges across the US for a variety of reasons. For example, it can improve learning outcomes, student motivation, and classroom dynamics. While research in the area of BL has found several student and teacher benefits, instructor training and support has been found to play a key role in the success of a BL environment. This presentation focuses on a study at a Midwestern university IEP which involved students and teachers from six ESL writing classes. Data on BL environment productiveness will be shared together with student and teacher perceptions and experiences.
An Irish Hybrid Language Program: Leveraging Technology to Meet Students’ Learning Outcomes in the Irish Language
Tara MacLeod, University of Notre Dame
Matthew Getze, University of Notre Dame
Notre Dame, the only university in North America with a Department of Irish Language & Literature, faces specific pedagogical, cultural and linguistic challenges. This program responded to these challenges by identifying and assessing student needs while sustaining student sense of progress and improvement, while maintaining enrollment numbers. This paper emerges from an innovative experimental hybrid program at the University of Notre Dame. Developed in conjunction with the Department of Irish Language and Literature and the Center for the Study of Languages and Cultures, this program modeled on the successful Rice program, bridges the traditional three-day instructional model at Notre Dame with independent structured learning. Using dubbing, cultural research, guided reading, photostory, Wimba and video recording, this approach encompasses a variety of approaches and techniques to expand the student’s engagement with the target culture and increase their contact time with the target language at a level and register appropriate to their respective levels. This presentation details the pre-planning and development of this hybrid program and charts the successes, failures and challenges encountered in administrating and teaching this model.
11:00am – 11:20am
Noticing Implicit Corrective Feedback in Text-based SCMC: An Eye Tracking Study
Bryan Smith, Arizona State University
This paper investigates the effectiveness of corrective feedback in a text-based synchronous computer-mediated communication second language (L2) learning environment. Intermediate learners of German and Spanish interacted in an SCMC environment with their instructor on an essay revision task. Instructors provided implicit corrective feedback where it seemed natural to do so. Results indicate that learners fixate on about 72% of all recasts.
Effects of Video versus Audio Modes on Ratings of Learner Recordings
Betsy Lavolette, Michigan State University
Student-recorded video for speech evaluation is largely unexplored, leaving us uncertain whether teachers evaluate video and audio-only recordings differently. No data are available on whether webcam video recordings affect the validity of speaking tests. In this study, I examine teachers’ evaluations of speech recorded by two intact ESL classes to see if there are perceptual differences in the ways teachers evaluate speech presented with or without visual cues. I also explore learners’ and teachers’ perceptions of digital audio versus video recordings.
A Quasi-Synesthetic Approach to the Learning of Words and their Grammatical Features: Colors, Voices and Pictures
Victor Dias de Oliveira Santos, Iowa State University
Knowledge of lexical items is arguably the most essential part of communicating in a foreign language (Richards, 2000). Many studies have been conducted on ways of learning the meaning/translation of foreign words, including incidental learning of words in context, use of the keyword method and others. However, studies on the acquisition of the grammatical features of lexical items (be it gender, noun classes, conjugational paradigms of verbs, etc.) are unfortunately considerably fewer. In our study, we investigate if the learning of grammatical features concomitantly to meaning results in an increase in cognitive load and whether a semi-synesthetic approach to learning those features is more effective than the current standard approach. We make use of colors, voices and pictures and have found that these have different effects on the recall and retention of noun meaning and gender in German. This talk also addresses possible implications for materials development, language learning and CALL and will allow all those attending to partake in a simulated version of the experiment in real time.
Using Social Networking to Develop Pragmalinguistic Awareness in Elementary Korean
Jieun Ryu, University of Arizona
Jonathon Reinhardt, University of Arizona
This presentation is to report the results and implications of a study that used Social Networking Service(SNS) (Facebook) explicitly in classroom-based activities for developing elementary level Korean learners¡¯ functional and declarative awareness of pragmalinguistic knowledge. Using advanced organizers, learners conducted pragmalinguistic analyses of honorifics on selected Facebook comment threads posted by native speakers (NSs) with instructor¡¯s guidance. Using fake Facebook profiles, they then participated in extended task-based role plays, and analyzed their own production. The students also completed pre-and post-survey as well as pre-and post-tests.
Taming the Jungle of Formulaic Language for Learners: Applying StringNet Lexical Knowledgebase to EFL Academic Writing
Barry Lee Reynolds, National Central University
An implementation of StringNet lexical-grammatical knowledgebase (Wible & Tsao, 2011) is reported in which Taiwanese graduate students use the system to improve their academic English writing. A query of StringNet returns a ranked list of lexico-grammatical patterns where the queried word or word combination is typically used, ranging from frozen expressions to patterns with open slots. The system also gives error corrections for queries of full phrases or word strings (e.g., a query ‘in my point of view’ receives the suggestion ‘from my point of view’). StringNet’s functions and results of its use by graduate students for their academic writing are described.
TV Commercials as an Open-Textbook for Intercultural Co-investigation: Collaboration Between Learners of Different Languages
Minjung Park, University of Texas
Despite the recognized benefits of using TV commercials for promoting cultural understanding and critical thinking (McGee and Fujita, 2000), these pedagogical benefits do not go beyond the classroom in which a teacher, often linguistically and culturally more knowledgeable, delivers the meaning of commercial to students. I will discuss a new form of learner collaboration between ESL learners and American learners of Korean at the same university, who were paired up to critically investigate and discuss the cultural values embedded in commercials from both cultures. The presentation includes the potential of cross-cultural commercials as open-source instructional materials for intercultural education.
11:30am – 11:50am
Integrating Collaborative Activities Using Wikis to Enhance College Students’ Writing in Learning Spanish
Daniel Castaneda, Kent State University
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of using wikis to improve college students’ writing in Spanish. Sixty-seven students participated in the study for three consecutive semesters. Pre and posttests results show that collaborative wiki activities were helpful in improving their grammatical understanding; furthermore, students found collaborative writing through wiki useful and helpful for developing their writing skills and learning a second language.
The Form and Function of Questions in Chinese Language Learners’ Social Communication on Facebook
Shenggao Wang, University of South Florida
This presentation reports the findings of an empirical study on the form and function of questions used by intermediate-level Chinese language learners during their free communication on Facebook. Preliminary findings revealed that “Wh” questions dominated three major question types and students used significantly less alternative questions. In question functions, students primarily used questions for requesting information, which was predominantly recreational and phatic instead of transactional or negotiating meaning. Few questions were asked to request clarification, to make suggestions, and to request explanations. No students used rhetorical questions or questions for offering assessment or opinion.
Technology across Writing Tasks and Contexts
Greg Kessler, Ohio University
Ana Oskoz, UMBC
Idoia Elola, Texas Tech University
This session will provide an overview of the 2012 offering in the CALICO book series, which is focused on technology across writing tasks and contexts. By presenting the different sections of the publication — perspectives on theoretical and research based integration of technology within L2 writing; transformational relationships among diverse applications and their influence on tasks, writing processes and learning; and curricular and educational implications for courses integrating technology in L2 writing — the presenters will help underscore the relationship between investigation into L2 writing, SLA research and CALL informed pedagogy. The session will also address areas that need further investigation.
Practice as the Guiding Principle in Research and Teaching in Second Life
Stella K. Hadjistassou, Arizona State University
The paper examines the effort undertaken by a group of Applied Linguists and Engineers to devise interactive instructional material and propose a research project by taking into account some of the practical-theoretical constructs that determine teaching and student learning in such context. The aim of this paper is to address the following questions: (1) What are the guiding principles that contributed to the construction of the virtual island and the design of pedagogical material to meet the students’ and instructors’ needs? (2) What are some of the theoretical constructs that this group of researchers considered in this process? (3) In what ways did the group of educators and researchers utilize these practical-theoretical resources to build pedagogical material in this virtual setting?
2:00pm – 3:30pm
Designing Effective Hybrid Foreign Language Classes
Merica McNeil University of Arizona
Thom Thibeault Southern Illinois University
Christopher Jones Carnegie Mellon University
Helene Ossipov Arizona State University
Katie Angus University of Arizona
Hybrid courses can offer numerous advantages and are increasingly attractive to administrators, instructors, and students. How can foreign language program directors and instructors design effective hybrid classes that help students achieve course goals and objectives? This panel, comprised of experienced instructors, teacher educators, and developers of hybrid foreign language courses, will discuss the following: selection and implementation of appropriate tech tools, technical training and support for both teachers and students, as well as assessment and feedback practices. Other concerns such as student motivation, course level, and potential challenges of designing and teaching hybrid foreign language classes will also be addressed.
2:00pm – 2:45pm
An Investigation on the Impact of Interactive Adventure Video Games
on Foreign Language Learning Based on Learners’ Perceptions
Hao-Jan Howard Chen, National Taiwan Normal University
Some researchers (e.g., Szynalski) suggested the potential of adventure games in language acquisition; however, few studies have investigated their impact on foreign language learning. Two highly interactive adventure games called Back to the Future and Puzzle Agent were adopted in this study. A group of 20 college EFL students in Taiwan were invited to play these adventure games for more than 10 hours and they were also asked to write a report. The analysis of their reports showed that students considered adventure games helpful in improving their language skills and learning motivation. Students also enjoyed the intriguing game design.
Exploring the Formation of Communities of Practice in a Web-based Social Networking Language Learning Environment
Meei-Ling Liaw, National Taichung University
This study examines the social interaction dynamics in a web-based language learning environment and how it fosters or impedes the formation of communities of practice. The crucial elements defined by Wenger (2007) in distinguishing a community of practice from other groups of communities were used to analyze the interactions between the participants and other users of the social networking language learning site. A questionnaire and stimulated recall interviews were also conducted to obtain L2 learners’ perspectives on the social elements of the site. Findings reveal supportive and collaborative learning within the context of a social networking learning environment. Factors that facilitated and inhibited shared practices are also identified.
Discover New Collaborative Methods of Virtual Language Learning to Increase Engagement and Retention
Gloryvee Cordero, SANS Inc./Sony Language Learning Technology
Learn how SANSSpace Virtual Language Learning Environment (VLLE) can engage students in language learning 24/7. SANSSpace™ VLLE virtually links language courses, content, and learning communities. The online digital comparative recorder is an essential tool to promote communication practice and reinforce skill development. See how synchronous and asynchronous tools encourage collaborative learning anywhere, anytime.
Second Language Phonology and Online Communities
Gillian Lord, University of Florida
Stasie Harrington, University of Wisconsin—Madison
This study examines second language phonological acquisition through podcasting. Participants from a college-level Spanish phonetics class carried out a series of audio recordings; the experimental group (n = 22) collaboratively created podcast channels to share, critique, and reflect on these recordings, while the control group (n = 18) only participated in self-evaluation. The first and last audio recordings were acoustically analyzed, focusing on traditionally problematic sounds for L2 learners of Spanish. The experimental group improved on all sounds, while the control group continued to show considerable variability. Results are discussed in terms of the role of community building in second language acquisition.
Overseas Skype Video Chat with Moodle Scheduler
Thomas Robb, Kyoto Sangyo University
This presentation will discuss various scenarios for using Skype or similar programs to facilitate language practice between our students and native (or fluent) speakers of the target language. We will discuss methods for finding target speakers, accommodating time zone differences, and considerations such as whether to hold sessions together in a CALL lab or individually outside of class. The presenter, having tried many permutations over the past few years, will finally present Moodle Scheduler, which appears to offer the best solution for scheduling in the presenters’ learning context. The audience is invited to share their own experiences, as well.
3:00pm – 3:45pm
Where’s the Pedagogy in Web 2.0?
Betsy Lavolette, Michigan State University
Susan Pennestri, Georgetown University
With the proliferation of Web 2.0 tools, it is not only challenging to keep up, but it can also be overwhelming to figure out which tools are the most appropriate for meeting learning goals. This session will introduce an evolving resource for Web 2.0 tools for language learning and teaching that includes a wide range of free and freemium tools that can be easily searched and browsed by skill, type of collaboration possible, cognitive level (based on Bloom’s taxonomy) and limitations. Selected tools and their pedagogical uses for language teachers will be presented in detail.
Facilitating Online Peer Feedback in the L2 Writing Classroom
Richmond Dzekoe, Iowa State University
Shu Ju Diana Tai, Iowa State University
Research has documented positive effects of peer feedback on L2 writing (Hedgcock & Lefkowitz, 1992; Suzuki, 2008). However, the literature also indicates the need to facilitate peer feedback by blending multiple modes of communication (Warschauer, 2000), and to help students focus on providing more revision related comments (Lai, Zhao, & Li, 2005; Liang, 2010). This study investigated how six ESL learners used VoiceThread, an asynchronous multimedia platform, for online peer feedback. The findings show that the students provided more revision-related comments and benefited from multiple mode feedback in revising their drafts. Pedagogical implications of these findings are discussed.
Using Second Life in Your Language Class: Designing a Hybrid Course
Maria Pares-Toral, Marquette University
This presentation will discuss a study on the effects of using the 3-D multi-user virtual environment Second Life on student motivation, academic achievement, and language proficiency in Intermediate Spanish courses. The presentation will focus on the logistics and the methodology used to design the hybrid course used in the study. An overview of the assessment tools and examples of activities completed in Second Life will also be provided. The presenter will also discuss the results of the study and suggestions for future courses using Second Life.
iPad Application and Assessment
Kathleen Mitchell, Oregon State University
Susan Beddes, Oregon State University
Erich White, Oregon State University
Although the benefits of some CALL activities are clear, bringing a class into the computer lab can be difficult and requiring students to bring their own technology to class can unfairly disadvantage some students. This session will present a 6-month trial of a classroom set of iPads in an Intensive English Language program. Participants will hear about six concrete lesson plans from subtitling videos to making interactive flashcards. They will also learn about the student, teacher and administrative perspectives on the benefits and drawbacks of using iPads in the classroom when compared to traditional computer labs. This information will help to demonstrate the possibilities the iPad presents and how/if the idea should be implemented on a larger scale.
The Acceso Project: Meeting Curricular Challenges put forth by the 2007 MLA Report through CALL Applications
Amy Rossomondo, University of Kansas
This presentation reports the progress of the Acceso project, an open-access, Web-based curriculum for intermediate-level Spanish studies that responds to MLA 2007 Report’s call to integrate the study of language, literature and culture at all levels of foreign language (FL) study. It begins with a description and concrete examples of how foundational FL study is approached through Web-based technologies that both provide access to the ever-evolving content of the curriculum and structure student interaction with the content. Representative examples of student work, along with students’ reflections on their own learning and experiences with this CALL curriculum are analyzed. Finally, future directions for the project are discussed, including opportunities for extra-institutional collaboration.
4:00pm – 5:30pm
Basic Lessons We’re Learning Online
Kathryn A. Murphy-Judy, Virginia Commonwealth University
This panel addresses lessons online basic language developers (Bonnie Youngs, CMU; Bob Godwin-Jones, VCU; Laura Franklin, NVCC; Betty Rose Facer, ODU; Ed Dixon, UPenn by distance; Edwige Simon, University of Colorado; and others) are learning from creating, teaching, administering, and revising college level, credit bearing first and second year courses. We consider: logistics; media; learner profiles (and selection) for success; and, teacher training, disposition and skill sets needed for online teaching.
4:00pm – 4:45pm
Peer Observation of OER (Re-)Use
Anna Comas-Quinn, Open University
Tita Beaven, Open University
This paper describes how the principles of Peer Observation of Teaching have been adapted and extended to the context of working with Open Educational Resources in order to observe teachers as they select OER for their lessons. After the lesson, the observer provided feedback and both parties engaged in a conversation about OER. The project was an attempt to develop Peer Observation for a new context in order to make the teachers’ tacit knowledge and their reflection in and on action in the context of (re-)using OER more explicit.
Exploring Smartphone Applications for Effective Mobile-Assisted Language Learning
Heyoung Kim, Chung-Ang University
Yeonhee Kwon, Chung-Ang University
The widespread smartphone has brought millions of mobile applications to L2 learners, but discussion has not been settled yet regarding effectiveness of using the unproven language learning materials. This presentation broadens the discussion by reporting findings from in-depth review of 88 ESL mobile apps. This study first suggests evaluation criteria tailored to mobile-based ESL software. Next, the features and functions of the selected applications are analyzed in three categories: 1) content and design, 2)approaches, and 3) technology. Finally, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of current L2 learning apps and the future direction toward effective MALL. Examples are demonstrated by language skills.
Utilizing Web 2.0 Tools to Develop Second/Foreign Language Proficiency
PyongGag Ahn, Defense Language Institute
Web 2.0 refers to the emergence of a set of applications on the web which facilitate a more socially connected web where everyone can be a creator of content online. Examples of Web 2.0 include social networking sites, blogs, wikis, video sharing sites, podcasts, photos, news feeds, etc. The benefit of utilizing these tools is to provide authentic contexts for communication and enhance social interaction and collaboration in language learning beyond classrooms. It also helps learners produce varied and creative language and exchange feedback to develop the target language proficiency.
“Wikis, and Vokis, and Blogs, Oh My!”: A K-16 Blackboard Language Resource Site for Language Learning Education
Frank Kruger-Robbins, Pine Crest Preparatory School
“Toto, we are definitely not in Kansas anymore!” Come take a magical journey through Blackboard to see how juniors and seniors at a wireless school use wikis to create online newspapers, avatars to be downloaded to web pages, blogs to collaborate, digital story-telling, and much more! Task-based instruction has truly changed the way in which language learning is evolving. Participants of this session will receive a notebook of student project handouts, rubrics, and access to the presenter’s Blackboard courses, as well as a K-16 Blackboard Language Resource Site! After taking this magical trip, you will no longer be saying, “There’s no place like home.”
Telecollaboration for Professional Purposes: Towards Developing a Formal Register in the Foreign Language Classroom
- Joseph Cunningham, University of Kansas
This study reports on the development of a professional spoken register among learners of German as they participate in four synchronous web conferences with German-speaking professionals. The researcher investigated the effect of interaction combined with an instructional intervention focusing on pragmatic competence. The data reveal a positive effect on the strategic use of modal verbs for expressing polite requests as well as a moderate effect on learners’ use of the subjunctive mood to establish social distance. These results support the use of telecollaborative exchanges mediated by data-driven instruction and highlight the utility of a microgenetic approach to analyzing spoken data.
Preparing Language Teachers to Teach in Virtual Worlds: A Case Study
Karina Silva, Iowa State University
The increased interest in virtual worlds (VWs) such as Second Life (SL) has resulted in studies that show a potential for these environments for language learning. If teachers are to use VWs in their classes, understanding how VWs work, including their capabilities and limitations, will empower them to better integrate these environments into their teaching. This presentation reports on a case study aimed at investigating language teachers’ needs and the best ways to prepare them to teach in VWs. Suggestions for the preparation of language teachers will also be addressed.