Friday, June 1, 9:00am – 9:30am
Online Pedagogical Drama Game-Supported Second Language Writing Curriculum
This is a design-based project with an ecological, dialogical and distributed (EDD) (Linell, 2009; Newgarden & Zheng, 2016; van Lier, 2004; Thibault, 2011) theories-driven design of learning environment enriched by an online pedagogical drama game. The purpose of this research is to uncover the relationships between the activity theory (Engestrom, 2000), the EDD framework, Internet pedagogical drama game-supported second language writing curriculum, and the implementation of a seven-day curriculum, which was built on a flipped classroom setting in which participants read teacher-chosen articles about a particular topic before three-hour face-to-face sessions consisting of group discussion, a game session, and a timed-writing session.
Evolution of CALL in CALICO Journal
This presentation traces the evolution of CALL in hundreds of articles published in CALICO Journals between 1984 and 2017. A set of maps over this period shows the development of CALL by examining important terms, by using co-citation analysis to identify research clusters (i.e., the most influential articles), and by applying co-word analysis to reveal the most researched topics and relationships. This presentation will point out the important distributions, patterns, trends and future direction of CALL.
Noticing Gaps in Intelligibility through Gmail Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR): Impact on Accuracy and Proficiency
L2 learners’ fear of speaking is not simply about the fact that their pronunciation may not be understood by a NS, but about not knowing precisely when they fail to be understood. This mixed methods study on the pronunciation of 28 learners of French hypothesized that the text generated by Gmail Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) could simulate to learners how their speech is understood by NS, to help them identify their gaps in intelligibility. It aimed at determining the impact of this feedback on their intelligibility, accuracy, and proficiency, while documenting their noticing process and construction of comprehensible output.
Factors Influencing Language Teachers’ Decisions to Adopt Educational Technology
Abir El Shaban
The study reports on how Diffusion of Innovations Theory informed the process of language teacher development in education technology use; shedding light on this issue may support facilitators in providing teachers with context-appropriate professional development in education technology use. The study featured a qualitative design with semi-structured interviews and three on line surveys to explore language teachers’ decision making around educational technology adoption, based in a context in which recommendation from literature for teacher professional development were applied. Findings revealed that relative advantages, and compatibility were the most important attributes for teachers to adopt technology. Also, female teachers were the significant adopters.
Interacting with Fiction: IF in the Classroom
While there has been a resurgence in retro gaming, there is still little information on using Interactive Fiction in classrooms, much less for language learning. This project details the creation of a IF game for ESL learners; this includes a focus on extensive reading and vocabulary acquisition. Teachers interested in using custom games in the classroom can use the project as a model or guide to identify potential pitfalls. Specific tips will be given for use in the classroom along with alternative design programs.
“I just love that we are able to speak so much in the classroom”: Leveraging Interactive and Communicative Tasks through the Flipped Classroom
Nadia Jaramillo Cherrez
This case study investigated the effectiveness of the flipped learning approach in an intermediate Spanish course to leverage interactive and communicative tasks. Guided by criteria for CALL task appropriateness (Chapelle, 2001) and ACTFL performance guidelines, this study evaluated the affordances of online CALL tasks and in-class communicative activities through a student survey and an instructor interview. The results showed that online CALL tasks offered potential to develop learners’ basic understanding of Spanish grammar and vocabulary, and in-class tasks reactivated these understandings to engage students in a highly communicative learning environment. Pedagogical implications are discussed for the effectiveness of flipped language learning.
Panel Presentation, 9:00am – 10:15am
Teaching Introductory Foreign Languages in an Oral Synchronous Environment
Marie-Christine Masse, Sara Villa, Daisy Bow, Hiroko Miyashita
In the fall of 2016, the Foreign Language Department at the New School embarked on a pilot program to explore online teaching in synchronous and asynchronous modalities in French, Japanese, and Spanish. One very unique feature of our pilot program is its focus on oral synchronous teaching in both introductory and intermediate language courses. Research on online language instruction designates oral synchronous environments as one of the most promising areas of online teaching (Meskill & Anthony, 2014) and describes it as an environment that provides multi-modal tools that can be used to amplify the instructional communicative modalities of a language course, otherwise lacking in traditional asynchronous/ hybrid courses.
Friday, June 1, 9:45am – 10:15am
Understanding the Impact of Genre-based AWE Affordances through the Lens of Utilization
Stephanie Link, Sarah Huffman, Elena Cotos
This mixed-methods study investigates the usefulness of genre-based AWE from three angles: novice writers’ interaction with automated rhetorical feedback and scaffolding features, metacognitive processes fostered by this interaction, and impact of interaction on revised discourse quality. Data obtained from 12 participants include process data (on-task screen recordings, student-system interaction logs), introspective data (stimulated recalls), perception data (pre-/post surveys), and writing product data (first and last drafts). The results show that automated rhetorical feedback and scaffolding features foster interaction that may prompt close text examination and improvement in discourse quality, and that enhanced interaction behaviors may foster fundamental metacognitive revision processes.
Exploring Learner Perceptions of Instantaneous Corrective Feedback in the Context of ASR-supported Pronunciation Training
Natallia Liakina, Denis Liakin
Recently, Web 2.0 and mobile applications have become an endless source of new technological tools that integrate Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR). Their use in learning environments has led to a growing interest by researchers whose studies demonstrate the effectiveness of these tools in relation to acquiring L2 pronunciation, to developing oral proficiency in general, and to providing instantaneous individualized feedback. In this presentation, we will first examine different types of corrective feedback(CF) that ASR-based applications can provide and will discuss their impact on the acquisition of L2 pronunciation in light of SLA findings. Second, we will report the results of our action research on the use of different ASR-based tools in two pronunciation courses, with reference to learners’ perceptions of the utility of automatic CF provided by these applications. To conclude, we will offer avenues of discussion and practical suggestions for the effective and sensible integration of ASR-based applications in the teaching of L2 pronunciation.
An Ecological Model of Game-based Language Use: Towards A Theory of Game-based FL Learning
This paper proposes an ecological model of digital game-based FL use that situates digital game-based FL use in the context of gameplay shedding light on the dynamics of gameplay and qualities of video game design that can facilitate gam-based L2 use and learning with the goal of informing future research, educational game design, and pedagogical integration of video games in FL classrooms.
Developing Future CALL Professionals via Guided Mentorship in a Global Online Course
Ananda Muhammad, Volker Hegelheimer
We report on the deliberate involvement of future CALL professionals as mentors of students enrolled in a global 8-week online teacher training course on the use of educational technology in the English language learning classroom as part of the U.S. Department of State American English E-Teacher Program. We offer insights into the evolution and usefulness of the mentor role, and discuss the intersections of students’ coursework and mentors’ specific tasks. Additionally, course mentors will share their insights regarding their professional growth. We conclude by outlining future plans and proposing principles applicable to the professional development of CALL professionals.
Foreign Languages Building, Room 1128
L2 Desktop Virtual Reality (VR) in ImmerseMe Software: Speaking, Interactivity, and Time
This study investigates the virtual reality-based (VRb) software ImmerseMe and its affordances for language learners for interactivity and time used. Created from 3D videos recorded around the world, ImmerseMe embeds automatic speech recognition software into lessons. It is licensed to over 13,000 users (Cardwell, 2017). This analysis of company user data indicates that 52% of users spent between 19-35 minutes with the software during one session. Users must speak to progress through lessons, resulting in high interactivity and output of spoken language. These affordances and durations suggest merit in L2 VRb software as a complement to classroom instruction.
Friday, June 1, 10:30am – 11:00am
How L2 Student Writers Engage with Automated Written Corrective Feedback
This multiple-case study investigates how L2 student writers engage with automated written corrective feedback on a cognitive, behavioral, and affective basis; specifically, the feedback provided by the popular English-language service Grammarly. Stimulated recall supported by eye-tracking was used to elicit information about which feedback participants accepted, which feedback they rejected, how they used the feedback, and why. Semi-structured interviews were also used to relate qualities of engagement to contextual, task, and individual factors. The extent to which different engagement patterns appeared to support benefits beyond improvements to the current writing task (i.e., writing-skills development and SLA) will be discussed.
ReDesign: Redesigning Educational Curricula across Academic Institutions around Digital Participatory Learning
In this three-year long EU-funded study, ReDesign, experienced educators, researchers and IT professionals collaborated to design a digital platform based on instructors’ teaching needs and students’ learning needs. Then faculty members in different academic disciplines, such as ESL collaborated to redesign their curricula to promote collaborations, expand learning opportunities, community building, and guide students in using various digital tools. Finally, the project drew on recent endeavors among educators to promote multimodal learning experiences in order to improve student engagement and cater to the learning styles and needs of a diverse student population across Europe (Sankey, Birch, & Gardiner, 2010).
ESL Students’ Use of a Social Bookmarking Tool: Focus on Digital Literacies and Communication
Oksana Vorobel, Tuvia Voorhees, Deniz Gokcora
This multiple-case study investigates English as a second language (ESL) students’ digital literacies and communication in a social bookmarking tool from an ecological perspective. Five students in a community college ESL writing course in the northeastern part of the USA participated in the study. The data sources included artifacts, observations, interviews, and researchers’ e-journal entries. Thorough within-case and cross-case analysis of data revealed various types of digital literacies, complexity of language learners’ communication, and language use in digital media. The findings and discussion of the study include suggestions for further research and implications for practice.
Supporting the 21st Century Language Learner Online: How ePortfolios and 3DVLEs May Facilitate Achievement of Communication, Critical Thinking and Collaboration
This presentation synthesizes results from the researchers PhD dissertation including studies exploring the viability of two online learning spaces – the ePortfolio and 3D virtual learning environment (3DVLE). The purpose of the presentation is to share theoretically informed pedagogical practice according to Phillips, McNaught and Kennedy’s (2010, 2012) learning framework called Learning Environment, Learning Processes and Learning Outcomes (LEPO), and explore how these spaces help students achieve 21st century learning outcomes. The presentation includes descriptions of each learning space followed by results from observation analysis and survey data from sections of an advanced English as a Second Language Academic (ESLA) class.
Foreign Languages Building, Room 1038
Individual Differences in Online Language Learning
Se Jeong Yang
The current study explores factors that affect the results of online learning in an online language learning program. In this research, ethnographic case studies with adult language learners were conducted for eight months. Focusing on six focal participants, the data such as interviews and journal diaries written by the participants were analyzed. The presentation discusses what leads to successful online language learning. The study also discusses the reasons of having different relationships between partners. This presentation can help educators find the ways to make online learning more promising and accessible to language learners.
Facing up to the Elephant: How Do Duolingo Students Impact your Classroom?
An increasing number of students in your language classes have taken a first taste, or even a long gulp, from websites, the most popular being the free language learning program Duolingo (over 200 million users). This session reviews Duolingo’s methodology, claims, and studies of its effectiveness, and its suitability as a platform for an introduction to less commonly taught languages. Recent research will be presented to determine the value of exposure through Duolingo for adult learners and students in college classes of Spanish and Esperanto, including assessments from interviews, student surveys, and pre-course and post-course testing of oral proficiency.
Panel Presentation, 10:30am – 11:45am
Producing Podcasts in the Classroom: From Audio Postcards to Sound Essays
Phillip Cameron, Carol Tell
In this presentation participants will explore the benefits of creating sound artifacts in the classroom. These artifacts include audio postcards, essays, and sound pieces as well as “translating” written essays into sound. We will work through the process of crafting assignments, topics, and techniques. Presenters will also share sample student essays and student responses to the experience. Attendees will think about ways to integrate podcasts into courses and create a podcast during a hands-on segment (content supplied). All levels of technical proficiency welcome.
Friday, June 1, 11:15am – 11:45am
Form, Function, and Relevance of Contemporary Language Resource Centers
For this presentation, results from a multiple-case study of contemporary language resource centers (LRCs) are offered. The purpose of the study was to better understand current forms, functions, and relevance of these centers. Five LRCs housed by four different institutions of higher education in the western United States were examined. Two representatives from each center were interviewed (N = 10). Data were collected using semi-structured interviews, on-site visits, and research journal entries. Implications are offered for those working with and within LRCs. Finally, the question of whether LRCs are relevant in today’s technological and methodological climate is addressed.
iCALL & ICALL or What Ambitions for “Intelligent” CALL Software?
ICALL has longly been somewhat marginal within the CALL community. A quick google scholar search by journal shows 48 mentions of “NLP” in 1920 ReCALL articles, 70/1740 for CALICO and 22/349 for ALSIC (French CALL Journal). Some of these mentions come from special issues dedicated to the subject. Does this under-representation come from disinterest of language learning on the part of NLP practitioners or the other way round? In the wake of a regain in interest, we wonder how the community might maintain this interest. This presentation offers the argument that advanced and ambitious NLP is not the only possibility.
A Collaborative Project for Teaching Reflectively with Technology
This reports on a collaboration involving the TESOL CALL Interest Section (US) and the IATEFL Learning Technologies SIG (UK) focused on teaching English reflectively with technology. It describes the project genesis and its goals, culminating in a joint edited volume on the topic. Drawing from relevant literature and from the content of the contributions, the presenter offers a set of seven guidelines for teaching languages reflectively with technology. The remainder of the talk highlights selections from the project’s 21 reflective reports, covering a wide range of technologies and teaching contexts and offering models for both teachers and teacher educators.
What is Computer Assisted Second Language Acquisition? An Empirical Analysis of Journal Articles on CALL, ICALL, and MALL from 2007-2017 Using the KWIC Method
In this paper we analyze the current academic environment (2007-2017) of Computer Assisted Second Language Acquisition (CASLA), in what capacity it intersects with Second Language Acquisition (SLA) principles, and what software platforms are being utilized by researchers. Accordingly, our goal is to illustrate the frequency and shift in (intelligent) computer assisted language learning (ICALL/CALL), mobile assisted language learning (MALL) usage, and SLA principles which are applied in 17 CASLA-related journal articles. We employ the Key Word In Context (KWIC) method to identify the dynamics of these factors. As a result, we identify the key trends in modern CASLA.
A Genre Analysis of Teacher-Student Chats in ESL Composition
A move analysis (Upton & Cohen, 2009) was used to examine chats from ESL composition courses, and the effectiveness of the feedback was evaluated based on uptake; the students’ perceptions were elicited through a survey. Findings show that the chats consist of social moves that establish rapport, management moves that structure the chat, and instructional moves with feedback. Much of the feedback provided is effective. The students’ perceptions confirm the usefulness of the chats for clarifying feedback.
Flower Child to Hipster – Adapting Existing Lessons to Evolving Languages
Languages are always changing, evolving, and adapting. It is important that students be exposed to current colloquialisms in the language they are learning if they are to better interpret the world around them and communicate more fluently. Jargon and expressions are especially prone to rapid changes. What was groovy yesterday is no longer fresh. The CAN-8 VirtuaLab and its integrated design tools allows you to easily customize your curriculum. In this presentation we will demonstrate how to quickly modify an existing online lesson based upon 60s slang to be more meaningful and relevant in today’s world.
Friday Afternoon, June 1
Friday, June 1, 2:15pm – 2:45pm
Autonomous L2 Learning and Pedagogical Guidance in the Use of Popular Culture Texts
This study investigates the pedagogical integration of popular culture texts in L2 education. With 12 intermediate and advanced-level learners of Japanese, 2 projects with anime and games were conducted for 10 weeks. The first project group (n = 6) watched three anime titles on their own. The second project group (n = 6) played two commercial games: an online game on their own and a PlayStation3 game as a group activity. Based on their questionnaire, weekly logs, wiki pages they created, and interviews, pedagogical guidance and implications to link inside- and outside-of-classroom literacies in formal and informal settings are discussed.
Assessment across Online Language Education
Stephanie Link, Jinrong Li
This session will provide an overview of the 2018 CALICO book series, which is focused on emergent challenges in the assessment of online language teaching and learning, the new assessment opportunities for language teachers and learners, and suggestions for future research on assessment and learning in online language education. By presenting the different sections of the publication — assessing learning progress and development, assessing online teachers, assessment tools for online environments, and future directions for online language assessment— the presenters will help underscore the relationship between investigation into CALL informed pedagogy and assessment.
Examining Technology Use in North American EAP Programs
Geoff Lawrence, Farhana Ahmed, Christina Cole, Kris Johnston
This presentation reports on government-funded research examining technology use in EAP university and college programs across North America. Findings from this multi-staged, mixed methods study will share EAP teacher and administrator beliefs about EAP technology integration, perceptions of benefits, limitations on teaching and learning along with constraints inhibiting technology use. The range of technologies used will be shared in addition to envisioned technology use and emerging areas of technology-enhanced EAP pedagogy. Implications for English language teaching, teacher education, curriculum design and an ongoing community of practice to inform EAP technology integration and research will conclude the presentation.
Video-mediated Communication: Creating Innovative Tasks to Assess Interactive Speaking Ability
Video-mediated communication could potentially be used to elicit spoken interaction across a wide range of innovative task types, producing more robust evidence of speakers’ interactional competence. We developed five speaking tasks where each task was designed to elicit particular features of interaction and reflect specific discursive practices in North American contexts. Tasks were implemented using a browser-based platform with video feeds for up to three participants and a moderator, who controlled presentation of content. We found that the platform generally worked with little interruption and that manipulating task variables did in fact elicit different features of interaction as expected.
Training the Online Language Teacher
This session will focus on the experiences, training and challenges faced by current online language teachers. Recommendations on how to better train and prepare teachers for online teaching will be provided based on the results of a large-scale survey of current online language teachers.
Friday, June 1, 3:00pm – 3:30pm
Towards an Automated Essay Scoring System for a College-Level English Placement Test
Hyunji Hayley Park
This study investigates the effectiveness and interpretability of a newly developed automated essay scoring (AES) system using corpus linguistics, computational linguistics and machine learning methods for an English writing placement test at a large Midwestern university. A closer look at the AES system shows that higher level students tend to use more academic and formal register and make much less grammatical errors. Interestingly, lower level students produce longer essays, but higher level students tend to produce longer and more complex sentences. Such results have useful implications for second language writing development and machine-assisted writing assessment.
Impact of Training in MALL on Learner Autonomy: A Case Study
Shaista Rashid, Una Cunningham, Kevin Watson
With the aim of developing learner autonomy in the use of smartphones for enhancing English writing skills, undergraduate students in a public university in Pakistan were provided learner training in MALL in an online environment. The CALL learner training model proposed by Romeo and Hubbard (2010) was adopted for the training purposes. This study examines the impact of training on students’ learner autonomy in MALL by exploring their attitudes, beliefs and practices in the use of smartphones for enhancing English writing skills.
Technological Solutions for Individualized Instruction in an ESL Composition Class
Leyla Lambert, Hugh Bishop, Amber Dunse
ESL composition classes often consist of students from a wide range of disciplines. This situation becomes challenging when variations in writing across disciplines need to be addressed. In this session, the presenters will share their experience of designing and teaching a unit on primary research writing to demonstrate how video technology (recording interviews with experts) coupled with tools available in a LMS (collaboration, content sharing) can be used to address students’ individual needs in a combined class. The presenters will share their materials and discuss how similar technology can be used to address other variations in students’ needs.
Computing the Vocabulary Demands of Podcasts
In addition to movies, TV programs, and radio shows, podcasts are an increasingly popular form of media that promotes authentic public discourse for diverse audiences, including English language teachers and learners. “How do I know that my students can handle the vocabulary demands of podcasts?” To answer that question, the presenter discusses the number of words necessary to understand podcast episodes and offers practical suggestions to prepare learners for the vocabulary demands of popular podcasts.
Improving Foreign Language Learners’ Oral Proficiency Using Digital Dynamic Iconography and a Promethean Board
Initiating language instruction with a method consisting of decoding or transforming iconographic signs sequences on a Promethean board may improve beginner students’ oral proficiency (Hazan M.; Geraci A.P.). This approach favors the development of semantic memory, reduces drastically learners’ need for translation, automatizes direct acquisition of language structures and avoids cross-linguistic influences on learners’ pronunciation because written forms are not used. In this paper, the presenter will illustrate the implementation of digital dynamic iconography in a foreign language course syllabus in a pilot study, which he has conducted with a teacher using the “Qtalk method” and a Promethean board.
Computer-generated vs. Computer-mediated Written Corrective Feedback
Mohaddeseh Mehrzad, Mohammad Rahimi
Despite the large volume of research on computer-mediated corrective feedback (CF) (e.g. feedback provided through email), feedback generated through Automated Writing Evaluation (AWE) tools, due to its convenience and efficiency, has started to gain momentum. However, there is still scant research on the efficacy of computer-generated CF (Dikli & Bleyle, 2014). The current study, through a mixed methods approach, compares the impact of two online tools in improving university students’ writing accuracy and its overall quality. To this end, 32 university EFL learners were randomly assigned to a computer-generated CF (provided through an AWE software, i.e. Criterion) and a computer-mediated CF group (provided by the teacher through Google Docs). The analysis of the students’ writings and their revision (N=12) at the end of the term revealed that the Google Docs group displayed significantly more improvement in their writing. Opinion surveys and interviews with the students showed that although, in general, they preferred online CF to traditional paper-and-pencil feedback, the Google Docs group revealed a more positive attitude toward the feedback they received.
Panel Presentation, 3:00pm – 4:15pm
Online/Distance Education for Second Language Learners and Educators
Se Jeong Yang, Oksana Vorobel, Victoria Russell, Cynthia White
Incorporation of online networks into online/distance education not only affects language learners’ learning and attitudes but also has a huge impact on language educators’ approaches to teaching and learning. This panel will explore some of the issues that arose while implementing online language classes from language learners’ as well as educators’ perspectives. The panel will illustrate some of the ways that online/distance learning can be improved by discussing specific current online/distance language studies from various theoretical perspectives. Panelists: Victoria Russell (Valdosta State University), Cynthia J. White & Liesbeth de Paepe (Massey University, New Zealand & Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium), Se Jeong Yang (Bradley University), and Oksana Vorobel (CUNY)
Friday, June 1, 3:45pm – 4:15pm
Digital Storytelling Affordances for Interpersonal Communication in the Foreign Language Classroom
The traditional assessment mode for interpersonal speaking is the interview with the instructor, individually or in pairs, which can be time-consuming. Here, I suggest a different, student-centered type of assessment: video-recorded conversations with peers, on a topic of interest to them, which allow students to expand their vocabulary and their creativity, using currently available technological tools. I will present suggestions for successful interviews, tips on pitfalls, and an assessment rubric.
A Socially Networked e-Portfolio for the Classroom of the Future
Amy Rossomondo, Gillian Lord
Language educators employ various technologies to engage their students and structure participation. In particular, social networking sites (SNSs) provide opportunities to foster online communities, self-expression and interaction with others. To date, these studies have focused on the use of existing sites. This presentation demonstrates a platform developed to integrate social networking and learner e-portfolios. Designed for use in language courses, the platform allows students to collaborate, share and comment on each other’s work. The presentation features an overview of the platform and its theoretical underpinnings, with sample activities and a complete pedagogical discussion of its application in different learning environments.
Experimenting with Google Docs and Jing: Stories from Two EAP Writing Teacher-Researchers
Maad El-Gali, Qiandi Liu
This presentation begins with a brief review of technologies adopted by writing teachers in providing feedback to students. It then reports on two studies that experimented with using Google Docs and Jing respectively as a feedback tool in two EAP (English for Academic Purposes) writing classes. Between-drafts comparisons showed that feedback given via in-text error codes facilitated student writers’ revising (content and organization) and editing (language use) process. Such benefits were further substantiated by participants’ responses to two retrospective questionnaires. The presentation wraps up by making recommendations on how current technologies can be expanded to better assist EAP writing instruction.
Design Based Research on Learning Games, the Example of Magic Word v2
Mathieu Loiseau, Arnaud Bey, Virginie Zampa, Pauline Ballot, Racha Hallal
In this presentation, we aim to give an overview of the improvements made to the first version of Magic Word (Loiseau, Zampa, and Rebourgeon 2015) based on an experiment led with Italian as a Foreign Language learners (Loiseau et al. 2016) and a focus group in 2016. Magic Word was designed as a learning game based on the metaludic rules (Silva 1999) of Boggle which target accuracy skills especially the acquisition of inflection mechanisms. The perception of the game by language teachers (focus on lexicon) and by learners (taste in competitive rules) prompted us to devise entirely new game modes.
Distilling Project-Based Language Learning Experience: the NFLRC’s Project Repository
The conceptual complexity of rigorous project-based language learning (PBLL) poses challenges to beginning practitioners. To supplement theoretical treatments of PBLL offered in its open online learning resources, the National Foreign Language Resource Center at the University of Hawaii offers an open repository of project designs authored by PBLL practitioners who have been through the NFLRC’s professional development sequence. This growing virtual library of project designs offers an example-based pathway to learning about PBLL and the Buck Institute for Education’s Gold Standard for project-based learning, while the archive’s structure scaffolds contributors’ thinking about their own project ideas, from design to execution.